Introductiion Cultural activities, such as the performingarts, are increasingly becoming recognized as drivers of meaningful development- development that is as much about reducing extreme poverty as it is aboutenhancing the potential and well-being of every human being and confrontingclimate change.
How can the performing arts promote development? At one level,the answer is absolutely obvious. Development seen in a human perspective,rather than grossly in terms of the expansion of material means, must take noteof the enrichment of people’s lives. The performing arts cannot but have amajor role in making our lives richer and finer. In this sense, the creativewealth represented by the tradition and practice of the performing arts isconstitutively a part of the process of development. The performing arts andother cultural activities are vehicles for collective voice, gender equality,social, capital, mental health, education, environmental promotion, nationalidentity, cultural heritage, and so on. To acknowledge this is to move beyondrelegating them to the basket of simplemindedness. The New Economy has reshaped previously heldbeliefs regarding productivity. Knowledge has supplanted labor-intensivecareers as the preferred path to economic growth and stability.
Human capitalhas become the primary determinant of a region’s economic vitality. Today’schallenging workplace demands academic skills (i.e., a college degree) as wellas “intangible” assets such as flexibility, problem-solving abilities, andinterpersonal skills.
Old hierarchical, boundary-laden, and staticorganizational structures are giving way to new kinds of “learningorganizations” with flattened hierarchies. More decision-making and problemsolving authority rests in the hands of front-line employees, and self-managed,cross-functional teams are replacing bureaucratic assembly lines. Furthermore,extensive cross training, teamwork, and flexible work assignments are takingthe place of elaborate work rules.
Consideringthat culture in development is broad, here we focus on the performing arts,including the interaction of music, dance, and theater in generating humancapital. While most examples given are music& dance oriented, theater,movies, and other mediums interact with music and dance in one way or the other, and vice versa. Thecentral point is to encourage intellectual inquiry, find solutions, and fuelaction on how the performing arts can play a meaningful role as enablers ofdevelopmentObjectivesToexplore how the arts and culture can transform our nation’s human capitalTofind out the relationship between performing arts and human capitalToexamine the importance of performing arts in the development of humanpersonalityToanalyze the present scenario of performing arts ConceptWhatis art? “Artis an expression of all characteristics of the human mind aesthetically”. Thesecharacteristics, i.e. the varied human emotions, are known as ‘RAS’. In Hindi,’ras’ literally means a sugary juice. It signifies the ultimate satisfaction of’aanand’.
The intellectual mind merges with the artistic streak, giving birthto art. Whatis Performing Arts?The performing arts are those forms of art in which individualpeople perform separately or together. The artist’s own body, face, and presence is needed for the performance.Performing artsinclude the dance, music, opera, drama, magic, oratory and circus arts.Artists whoparticipate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers,including actors, comedians, dancers, magicians, musicians, and singers. Performing arts are also supported byworkers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft.
Human CapitalHumanCapital is a measure of the skills, education, capacity and attributes oflabour which influence their productive capacity and earning potential.According to theOECD, human capital is defined as:”the knowledge, skills, competencies and other attributesembodied in individuals or groups of individuals acquired during their life andused to produce goods, services or ideas in market circumstances”.· Individual human capital – the skillsand abilities of individual workers· Human capital of the economy – Theaggregate human capital of an economy, which will be determined by nationaleducational standards.Measuring human capitalFor statisticalpurposes, human capital can be measured in monetary terms as the totalpotential future earnings of the working age population.
(However, this onlycaptures part of human capital and is a limited measure)Factors that determine human capital· Skills and qualifications· Education levels· Work experience· Social skills – communication· Intelligence· Personality – hard working, harmoniousin an office· Habits and personality traits· Creativity. Ability to innovate newworking practices/products.· Fame and brand image of an individual.e.g. celebrities paid to endorse a product.Human capital in primary and secondarysector is measured in terms of productivityHuman capital in tertiary sector/knowledgeeconomy is measured in terms of skills.
In other words, asthe economy has developed the concept of human capital has also broadened toinclude a greater variety of skills and traits of capital.Since the 1960s/70s,human capital has become a more popular economic concept as the emerging ‘knowledge economy’ makes greater use of a widerrange of human capital.Topursue economic development projects with a creative approach, and to generatehuman capital through performing Arts there are three key points to consider: Key point # 1Economicdevelopment is enhanced by concentrating on creativity Concentrationsof cultural enterprises and creative workers in a geographic area provide acompetitive edge, likely by elevating the quality of life, improving acommunity’s ability to attract economic activity, and creating a climate inwhich innovation can flourish. Concentration of culture-sector firms and highlyskilled workers, along with related facilities and business, enablespartnerships and cooperative projects to develop. Concentration alsofacilitates the marketing of skills and products. The physical density ofcreative and cultural firms promotes the sector’s prosperity, which is in turneconomically good for the local area as a whole. Clusters of culturallyoriented businesses and workers can breed innovation and new specializations.Places where innovation is prized are naturally attractive to innovators andconducive to creativity of all types, as the frequency of exchange promotescreative activity.
The ITASchool of Performing Arts is a leading Performing Arts School in Mumbai, Indiaand is one such example of cultural enterprise. With the guidance of mostrenowned faces of television and film industry, stars are prepared of thefuture. The vast spacious training center is equipped with the mostcutting-edge instruments that help you see your performance and improve it tothe best level possible. It offer course like Acting, Dance, Singing, Modellingand Image Grooming. At The ITASPA, not only they impart quality education inrespect to courses, it creates a bridge between the industry and the peopleand this in turn helps in generation of human capital. Therecognition of a community’s arts and cultural assets is an important elementin development Recognizingand strengthening existing assets are vital parts of community development andcan contribute to economic development. Assets include those related toentertainment (e.g.
, theaters, performing groups), personal development (e.g.,community centers, bookstores), and education (e.g., schools, museums), as wellas more directly to job creation and industry (e.
g., singers, dancers).Cultural and creative amenities are assets as well as excellent tools foridentifying and promoting other community assets. Creative-class theorysuggests that a high-tech, highly educated workforce prefers a location with creativeamenities. A flourishing arts and culture sector can affect where workers inthe information economy, especially younger ones, want to live and as such isimportant for workforce recruitment and retention strategies. To promote localculture and creativity, communities can deem an area or part of town as anarts, cultural, or creative district. The KalaGhoda Arts Festival is anannual festival, nine days long, commencing always on the first Saturday ofFebruary and closing always on the second Sunday in February, in the Kala Ghoda area of South Mumbai, India.
From its inception in 1999, theFestival has grown in stature and popularity, attracting visitors andparticipants from other parts of the country, and the world from varied areassuch as visual arts, dance, music, theatre, cinema, literature and stalls selling eco friendly, hand madearts and crafts wares. Artsand cultural activities can draw people within and outside communityArtsand cultural activity can increase attention and foot traffic to an area,including attracting visitors and increasing the length of time and money theyspend, thereby contributing to continued development. Similarly, the presenceof public art and related streetscape amenities such as artist designed lighting,signs, and benches is a way to attract pedestrians. Arts and cultural activityoften attracts attention, whether for casual perusal or artistic investment.Such activity can include events at culturally specific facilities such astheaters, museums, music clubs, and galleries, as well as cultural activity invenues such as arenas, public parks, community centers, and schools.Communities can also develop creative ways to make artistic activity happen invacant or underutilized spaces. The NationalCentre for the Performing Arts (NCPA)is a multi-venue, multi-purpose cultural centre in Mumbai, India, which aims topromote and preserve India’s heritage of music, dance, theatre, film,literature and photography. It also presents new and innovative work in theperforming arts field.
The Centre was founded in 1969 by JRD Tata and DrJamshed Bhabha.Throughout the yearsNCPA hosts many performances including classical, traditional and contemporary performing arts in dance,theatre, and music.Notable Indian performers who performed at NCPA include Vilayat Khan, M. S. Subbulakshmi, Birju Maharaj,Kelucharan Mohapatra, Savitha Sastry, Mani Madhava Chakyar, Shakuntala, Smita Patil, Parveen Sultana and Shabana Azmi.
NCPA has alsoattracted many international performers including Yehudi Menuhin, IsraelPhilharmonic Orchestra, Navoi Bolshoi Ballet of Uzbekistan, Marcel Marceau, Barber of Seville opera, production of Jane Eyre, andother British Council commissionedtheatre productions. In 2006, New Jersey Ballet staged India’s first full-lengthclassical ballet with its Nutcracker production. 12.
9 PRESENT SCENARIO OF THEPERFORMING ARTS Presently, all the three art forms i.e. dance,music and drama are flourishing in the country. Several music institution likeGandharva Mahavidyalaya and Prayag Sangeet Samiiti have been imparting trainingin classical music and dance for more than fifty years. A number of schools,colleges and universities in India have adopted these art forms as a part oftheir curriculum. Indira Kala Sangeet VishwaVidyalaya of Khairagarh is auniversity of music.
Kathak Kendra, National School of Drama, Bharatiya KalaKendra and many institutes are all propagating music in their own ways. Musicconferences, baithaks, lecture demonstrations are being organised andmusicians, music scholars, music teachers and music critics are trying topopularise music and dance. Societies like Spic-macay, SangeetNatak Academiesare also working hard to protect, develop and popularise Indian music, danceand drama at the national and even international level. At the internationallevel musicians have made significant contribution.
Different institutions ofmusic started by Pt. Ravi Shankar, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan and UstadAllaRakkhaKhan teach Indian music to foreigners. Many foreign universities havedepartments of Indian performing arts and they award degrees and diplomas tostudents. All over the world Indian artists are invited to perform andparticipate in various festivals. Various agencies like Indian Council ofCultural Relations (ICCR) and the Ministry of Human Resource Developmentcontinuously propagate all these art forms by giving grants, scholarships andfellowships to renowned artists as well as to young artists and by arrangingexchange programmes in the field of Indian music, dance and drama.3.1Opportunities in the PerformingArts (theater and dance) industry· Nationaland international exposure: There is an increased circulationof performances within India because of the presence of varied cultures andcorresponding festivals. The Indian performing arts have also become moreprominent on the global stage, with artists gaining access to a number ofopportunities for participation in foreign festivals and internationalcollaborative projects.
Some of these opportunities may be attributed to theeconomic growth in the country, which has produced widespread international interestin promoting partnerships with Indian arts groups and showing how Indiaexpresses itself in visuals and performance.· Increasingrecognition for performing arts: : A large number ofawards and festivals have emerged to recognize the contribution by the theater,dance and other performing arts forms. These initiatives strive to nurturetheater and art forms in several ways, ranging from awarding excellence in allaspects of play creation, recognizing promising young talent, to creating andbringing new works from across the country and globe to local audiences.· Newtechnology and settings: Performance groups areexperimenting with new settings and alternative non-traditional spaces, such asparks, basements, old studios, terraces, backyards, cafes, bookshops,gymnasiums, restaurants and offices.
Also, there is a growing tendency toexplore the many ways in which multimedia can be used in performances. Manyyoung directors are also using audio-visual project· Varied performances: Short stories,biographies, historical documents and poetry are all being experimented assources for performances. Indian directors and actors are increasingly devisingperformances through dialogue and workshops, using personal experience, topicalissues or recent public events as the starting point. Also, despite the spurtin playwriting in languages such as Marathi and English, not enough plays arebeing written for the expanding field of theater.
Key challenges in the PerformingArts (theater and dance) industry· Identity:India is a vast country with multiple languages and varied cultures and,therefore, any form of performing arts can be identified immediately with theseelements. In India, the concept of performing arts is purely in regional terms.All the regions have their own language, history and culture and their theaterand dance is also deeply rooted in those regions.
That is why over the last 30to 40 years, there has been a search for its true and authentic form which mayrepresent a combination of the aspirations of modern India as well as acontinuity of its traditions. Since the performing arts field is divided bylanguage, class, caste and ideology, getting performers to put aside theirdifferences and come together is among the greatest challenges in this sector. Secondly,because they are relatively impoverished, performing artists will find it hardto pay membership fees and sustain forums and networks in other ways.
Hence,grant makers and Governments have a role to play in nurturing partnerships andalliances among performing artists. · Raisingfunds/sponsorship: While the performing arts industry inIndia receives support from corporations, the Government, developmentalorganizations, bilateral agencies, and trusts and foundations, the quantum offunding available is inadequate to meet the needs and challenges in thissector. The landscape of performing arts funding in India is grim. The Ministryof Culture, which still is the largest funder, does not spend 100% of itsallocated budget each year, not because there are less deserving projects, butdue to its refusal to change its programming and modes of operation in movingwith the changing needs and aspirations of the arts world. Internationalfoundations such as the Ford Foundation, which used to have a strong arts andculture program in India, have reduced their culture funds, keeping alive onlythose areas of their work that directly and measurably affect socio-economicplight. Also, due to lack of funds, theater and dance performing companies areunable to advertise appropriately about their shows/performances, which leadsto a lack of awareness, thereby resulting in low audiences.· Dearthof infrastructure (performance and rehearsal spaces):There are only a few performance groups in the industry that have their ownspaces for rehearsals and performances while a majority of the groups have toperform in rented auditoriums.
Some theaters are not available for technicaland dress rehearsals while others do not allow enough time for the setting upof a performance. State governments and the Central Government have builtseveral auditoriums and although these public halls are cheaper to rent, theyare not well equipped and are poorly maintained. Additionally, smallauditoriums are available for other uses in the cultural centers set up byforeign Governments, such as the Max Mueller Bhavan, Alliance Francaise and theBritish Council, which have a presence in all major cites of the country.
Thesespaces, however, are of variable quality and offer limited facilities. ThePrithvi Theater in Mumbai and the RangaShankara in Bangalore are among the rareperforming spaces that have been custom-built for the theater. Unlike othervenues, they have become a regular meeting point for artists, critics and theinterested public.
· Shrinkingaudience size: Audiences for the performing arts,except in some areas such as classical music and commercial theater, are nicheand shrinking further. Audience building is an area in which performance groupsthemselves can undertake through several initiatives without external help,such as use of informal spaces to bring performances to differentneighborhoods.· Inclinationtoward other performing arts platforms: Over the last fewyears, several performing art platforms have emerged which have becomefinancially more remunerative and socially more attractive. As a result, thereis an increasing exodus from the theater to films. Also, TV, video, film andsatellite channels have been attracting the maximum number of people from thetheater and dance industry to these options because of numerous opportunities,including fame and money. As a result, the performing arts activities havesuffered a severe setback in the last 15 years. · Livelihood:The performing arts industry has never been professional and artists associatedwith the production and presentations of theater and dance have not beenentirely dependent on it for their livelihood. For them, it has always been apassion and hardly a profession.
Even the professional theater groups performfor about six to eight months a year. For the rest of the year, these artisans,remain engaged either in agriculture or other vocations. However, the scenariois changing, albeit slowly, with the artists receiving some form of recognitionfrom the audience.
Becauseof these challenges faced by performing arts, generation of human capital isgetting affected.ConclusionPresently,all the three art forms are flourishing in the country. Musical institutionshave opened up giving opportunities to many. Schools, universities havedepartments of music. Indira Kala VishwaVidyalaya of Khairagarh is a universityof music, GandharvaMahaVidyalaya, Kathak Kendra and many institutes in thesouth are all propagating music in their own ways. Music conferences, Baithaks,lecture, demonstrations are all spreading music to nooks and corners of India.Societies like Spic-macay, India International Rural Cultural Centre haveworked very hard to bring about a rapport and bondage with artists and themodern generation. Abroad musicians have also flourished and differentinstitutions of music started by Pt.
Ravi Shankar, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan,AllaRakkha etc. are prestigious teaching centres for foreigners. Many foreignuniversities also have facilities of art forms giving degrees and diplomas tostudents.
All over the world Indian artists are invited to perform andparticipate in various festivals and occasions. In the last few decades thestatus of dance as well as its performers has changed. Young people havestarted learning dance to enrich their personal qualities. In some of theschools, colleges and universities separate departments have been establishedfor imparting training in dance. Several renowned classical dancers have beenawarded national awards like the Padmashree and the Padmabhusan.