Cultural activities, such as the performing
arts, are increasingly becoming recognized as drivers of meaningful development
– development that is as much about reducing extreme poverty as it is about
enhancing the potential and well-being of every human being and confronting
climate change. How can the performing arts promote development? At one level,
the answer is absolutely obvious. Development seen in a human perspective,
rather than grossly in terms of the expansion of material means, must take note
of the enrichment of people’s lives. The performing arts cannot but have a
major role in making our lives richer and finer. In this sense, the creative
wealth represented by the tradition and practice of the performing arts is
constitutively a part of the process of development. The performing arts and
other cultural activities are vehicles for collective voice, gender equality,
social, capital, mental health, education, environmental promotion, national
identity, cultural heritage, and so on. To acknowledge this is to move beyond
relegating them to the basket of simplemindedness.
The New Economy has reshaped previously held
beliefs regarding productivity. Knowledge has supplanted labor-intensive
careers as the preferred path to economic growth and stability. Human capital
has become the primary determinant of a region’s economic vitality. Today’s
challenging workplace demands academic skills (i.e., a college degree) as well
as “intangible” assets such as flexibility, problem-solving abilities, and
interpersonal skills. Old hierarchical, boundary-laden, and static
organizational structures are giving way to new kinds of “learning
organizations” with flattened hierarchies. More decision-making and problem
solving authority rests in the hands of front-line employees, and self-managed,
cross-functional teams are replacing bureaucratic assembly lines. Furthermore,
extensive cross training, teamwork, and flexible work assignments are taking
the place of elaborate work rules.
that culture in development is broad, here we focus on the performing arts,
including the interaction of music, dance, and theater in generating human
capital. While most examples given are music& dance oriented, theater,
movies, and other mediums interact with music and dance in one way or the other, and vice versa. The
central point is to encourage intellectual inquiry, find solutions, and fuel
action on how the performing arts can play a meaningful role as enablers of
explore how the arts and culture can transform our nation’s human capital
find out the relationship between performing arts and human capital
examine the importance of performing arts in the development of human
analyze the present scenario of performing arts
is an expression of all characteristics of the human mind aesthetically”. These
characteristics, i.e. the varied human emotions, are known as ‘RAS’. In Hindi,
‘ras’ literally means a sugary juice. It signifies the ultimate satisfaction of
‘aanand’. The intellectual mind merges with the artistic streak, giving birth
is Performing Arts?
The performing arts are those forms of art in which individual
people perform separately or together. The artist’s own body, face, and presence is needed for the performance.
include the dance, music, opera, drama, magic, oratory and circus arts.
participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers,
including actors, comedians, dancers, magicians, musicians, and singers. Performing arts are also supported by
workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft.
Capital is a measure of the skills, education, capacity and attributes of
labour which influence their productive capacity and earning potential.
According to the
OECD, human capital is defined as:
“the knowledge, skills, competencies and other attributes
embodied in individuals or groups of individuals acquired during their life and
used to produce goods, services or ideas in market circumstances”.
Individual human capital – the skills
and abilities of individual workers
Human capital of the economy – The
aggregate human capital of an economy, which will be determined by national
Measuring human capital
purposes, human capital can be measured in monetary terms as the total
potential future earnings of the working age population. (However, this only
captures part of human capital and is a limited measure)
Factors that determine human capital
Skills and qualifications
Social skills – communication
Personality – hard working, harmonious
in an office
Habits and personality traits
Creativity. Ability to innovate new
Fame and brand image of an individual.
e.g. celebrities paid to endorse a product.
Human capital in primary and secondary
sector is measured in terms of productivity
Human capital in tertiary sector/knowledge
economy is measured in terms of skills.
In other words, as
the economy has developed the concept of human capital has also broadened to
include a greater variety of skills and traits of capital.
Since the 1960s/70s,
human capital has become a more popular economic concept as the emerging ‘knowledge economy’ makes greater use of a wider
range of human capital.
pursue economic development projects with a creative approach, and to generate
human capital through performing Arts there are three key points to consider:
Key point # 1
development is enhanced by concentrating on creativity
of cultural enterprises and creative workers in a geographic area provide a
competitive edge, likely by elevating the quality of life, improving a
community’s ability to attract economic activity, and creating a climate in
which innovation can flourish. Concentration of culture-sector firms and highly
skilled workers, along with related facilities and business, enables
partnerships and cooperative projects to develop. Concentration also
facilitates the marketing of skills and products. The physical density of
creative and cultural firms promotes the sector’s prosperity, which is in turn
economically good for the local area as a whole. Clusters of culturally
oriented businesses and workers can breed innovation and new specializations.
Places where innovation is prized are naturally attractive to innovators and
conducive to creativity of all types, as the frequency of exchange promotes
School of Performing Arts is a leading Performing Arts School in Mumbai, India
and is one such example of cultural enterprise. With the guidance of most
renowned faces of television and film industry, stars are prepared of the
future. The vast spacious training center is equipped with the most
cutting-edge instruments that help you see your performance and improve it to
the best level possible. It offer course like Acting, Dance, Singing, Modelling
and Image Grooming. At The ITASPA, not only they impart quality education in
respect to courses, it creates a bridge between the industry and the people
and this in turn helps in generation of human capital.
recognition of a community’s arts and cultural assets is an important element
and strengthening existing assets are vital parts of community development and
can contribute to economic development. Assets include those related to
entertainment (e.g., theaters, performing groups), personal development (e.g.,
community centers, bookstores), and education (e.g., schools, museums), as well
as more directly to job creation and industry (e.g., singers, dancers).
Cultural and creative amenities are assets as well as excellent tools for
identifying and promoting other community assets. Creative-class theory
suggests that a high-tech, highly educated workforce prefers a location with creative
amenities. A flourishing arts and culture sector can affect where workers in
the information economy, especially younger ones, want to live and as such is
important for workforce recruitment and retention strategies. To promote local
culture and creativity, communities can deem an area or part of town as an
arts, cultural, or creative district.
Ghoda Arts Festival is an
annual festival, nine days long, commencing always on the first Saturday of
February and closing always on the second Sunday in February, in the Kala Ghoda area of South Mumbai, India.
From its inception in 1999, the
Festival has grown in stature and popularity, attracting visitors and
participants from other parts of the country, and the world from varied areas
such as visual arts, dance, music, theatre, cinema, literature and stalls selling eco friendly, hand made
arts and crafts wares.
and cultural activities can draw people within and outside community
and cultural activity can increase attention and foot traffic to an area,
including attracting visitors and increasing the length of time and money they
spend, thereby contributing to continued development. Similarly, the presence
of public art and related streetscape amenities such as artist designed lighting,
signs, and benches is a way to attract pedestrians. Arts and cultural activity
often attracts attention, whether for casual perusal or artistic investment.
Such activity can include events at culturally specific facilities such as
theaters, museums, music clubs, and galleries, as well as cultural activity in
venues such as arenas, public parks, community centers, and schools.
Communities can also develop creative ways to make artistic activity happen in
vacant or underutilized spaces.
Centre for the Performing Arts (NCPA)
is a multi-venue, multi-purpose cultural centre in Mumbai, India, which aims to
promote and preserve India’s heritage of music, dance, theatre, film,
literature and photography. It also presents new and innovative work in the
performing arts field. The Centre was founded in 1969 by JRD Tata and Dr
Throughout the years
NCPA hosts many performances including classical, traditional and contemporary performing arts in dance,theatre, and music.
Notable Indian performers who performed at NCPA include Vilayat Khan, M. S. Subbulakshmi, Birju Maharaj,Kelucharan Mohapatra, Savitha Sastry, Mani Madhava Chakyar, Shakuntala, Smita Patil, Parveen Sultana and Shabana Azmi.
NCPA has also
attracted many international performers including Yehudi Menuhin, Israel
Philharmonic Orchestra, Navoi Bolshoi Ballet of Uzbekistan, Marcel Marceau, Barber of Seville opera, production of Jane Eyre, and
other British Council commissioned
theatre productions. In 2006, New Jersey Ballet staged India’s first full-length
classical ballet with its Nutcracker production.
12.9 PRESENT SCENARIO OF THE
Presently, all the three art forms i.e. dance,
music and drama are flourishing in the country. Several music institution like
Gandharva Mahavidyalaya and Prayag Sangeet Samiiti have been imparting training
in classical music and dance for more than fifty years. A number of schools,
colleges and universities in India have adopted these art forms as a part of
their curriculum. Indira Kala Sangeet VishwaVidyalaya of Khairagarh is a
university of music. Kathak Kendra, National School of Drama, Bharatiya Kala
Kendra and many institutes are all propagating music in their own ways. Music
conferences, baithaks, lecture demonstrations are being organised and
musicians, music scholars, music teachers and music critics are trying to
popularise music and dance. Societies like Spic-macay, SangeetNatak Academies
are also working hard to protect, develop and popularise Indian music, dance
and drama at the national and even international level. At the international
level musicians have made significant contribution. Different institutions of
music started by Pt. Ravi Shankar, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan and UstadAllaRakkha
Khan teach Indian music to foreigners. Many foreign universities have
departments of Indian performing arts and they award degrees and diplomas to
students. All over the world Indian artists are invited to perform and
participate in various festivals. Various agencies like Indian Council of
Cultural Relations (ICCR) and the Ministry of Human Resource Development
continuously propagate all these art forms by giving grants, scholarships and
fellowships to renowned artists as well as to young artists and by arranging
exchange programmes in the field of Indian music, dance and drama.
3.1Opportunities in the Performing
Arts (theater and dance) industry
and international exposure: There is an increased circulation
of performances within India because of the presence of varied cultures and
corresponding festivals. The Indian performing arts have also become more
prominent on the global stage, with artists gaining access to a number of
opportunities for participation in foreign festivals and international
collaborative projects. Some of these opportunities may be attributed to the
economic growth in the country, which has produced widespread international interest
in promoting partnerships with Indian arts groups and showing how India
expresses itself in visuals and performance.
recognition for performing arts: : A large number of
awards and festivals have emerged to recognize the contribution by the theater,
dance and other performing arts forms. These initiatives strive to nurture
theater and art forms in several ways, ranging from awarding excellence in all
aspects of play creation, recognizing promising young talent, to creating and
bringing new works from across the country and globe to local audiences.
technology and settings: Performance groups are
experimenting with new settings and alternative non-traditional spaces, such as
parks, basements, old studios, terraces, backyards, cafes, bookshops,
gymnasiums, restaurants and offices. Also, there is a growing tendency to
explore the many ways in which multimedia can be used in performances. Many
young directors are also using audio-visual project
Varied performances: Short stories,
biographies, historical documents and poetry are all being experimented as
sources for performances. Indian directors and actors are increasingly devising
performances through dialogue and workshops, using personal experience, topical
issues or recent public events as the starting point. Also, despite the spurt
in playwriting in languages such as Marathi and English, not enough plays are
being written for the expanding field of theater.
Key challenges in the Performing
Arts (theater and dance) industry
India is a vast country with multiple languages and varied cultures and,
therefore, any form of performing arts can be identified immediately with these
elements. In India, the concept of performing arts is purely in regional terms.
All the regions have their own language, history and culture and their theater
and dance is also deeply rooted in those regions. That is why over the last 30
to 40 years, there has been a search for its true and authentic form which may
represent a combination of the aspirations of modern India as well as a
continuity of its traditions. Since the performing arts field is divided by
language, class, caste and ideology, getting performers to put aside their
differences and come together is among the greatest challenges in this sector. Secondly,
because they are relatively impoverished, performing artists will find it hard
to pay membership fees and sustain forums and networks in other ways. Hence,
grant makers and Governments have a role to play in nurturing partnerships and
alliances among performing artists.
funds/sponsorship: While the performing arts industry in
India receives support from corporations, the Government, developmental
organizations, bilateral agencies, and trusts and foundations, the quantum of
funding available is inadequate to meet the needs and challenges in this
sector. The landscape of performing arts funding in India is grim. The Ministry
of Culture, which still is the largest funder, does not spend 100% of its
allocated budget each year, not because there are less deserving projects, but
due to its refusal to change its programming and modes of operation in moving
with the changing needs and aspirations of the arts world. International
foundations such as the Ford Foundation, which used to have a strong arts and
culture program in India, have reduced their culture funds, keeping alive only
those areas of their work that directly and measurably affect socio-economic
plight. Also, due to lack of funds, theater and dance performing companies are
unable to advertise appropriately about their shows/performances, which leads
to a lack of awareness, thereby resulting in low audiences.
of infrastructure (performance and rehearsal spaces):
There are only a few performance groups in the industry that have their own
spaces for rehearsals and performances while a majority of the groups have to
perform in rented auditoriums. Some theaters are not available for technical
and dress rehearsals while others do not allow enough time for the setting up
of a performance. State governments and the Central Government have built
several auditoriums and although these public halls are cheaper to rent, they
are not well equipped and are poorly maintained. Additionally, small
auditoriums are available for other uses in the cultural centers set up by
foreign Governments, such as the Max Mueller Bhavan, Alliance Francaise and the
British Council, which have a presence in all major cites of the country. These
spaces, however, are of variable quality and offer limited facilities. The
Prithvi Theater in Mumbai and the RangaShankara in Bangalore are among the rare
performing spaces that have been custom-built for the theater. Unlike other
venues, they have become a regular meeting point for artists, critics and the
audience size: Audiences for the performing arts,
except in some areas such as classical music and commercial theater, are niche
and shrinking further. Audience building is an area in which performance groups
themselves can undertake through several initiatives without external help,
such as use of informal spaces to bring performances to different
toward other performing arts platforms: Over the last few
years, several performing art platforms have emerged which have become
financially more remunerative and socially more attractive. As a result, there
is an increasing exodus from the theater to films. Also, TV, video, film and
satellite channels have been attracting the maximum number of people from the
theater and dance industry to these options because of numerous opportunities,
including fame and money. As a result, the performing arts activities have
suffered a severe setback in the last 15 years.
The performing arts industry has never been professional and artists associated
with the production and presentations of theater and dance have not been
entirely dependent on it for their livelihood. For them, it has always been a
passion and hardly a profession. Even the professional theater groups perform
for about six to eight months a year. For the rest of the year, these artisans,
remain engaged either in agriculture or other vocations. However, the scenario
is changing, albeit slowly, with the artists receiving some form of recognition
from the audience.
of these challenges faced by performing arts, generation of human capital is
all the three art forms are flourishing in the country. Musical institutions
have opened up giving opportunities to many. Schools, universities have
departments of music. Indira Kala VishwaVidyalaya of Khairagarh is a university
of music, GandharvaMahaVidyalaya, Kathak Kendra and many institutes in the
south are all propagating music in their own ways. Music conferences, Baithaks,
lecture, demonstrations are all spreading music to nooks and corners of India.
Societies like Spic-macay, India International Rural Cultural Centre have
worked very hard to bring about a rapport and bondage with artists and the
modern generation. Abroad musicians have also flourished and different
institutions of music started by Pt. Ravi Shankar, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan,
AllaRakkha etc. are prestigious teaching centres for foreigners. Many foreign
universities also have facilities of art forms giving degrees and diplomas to
students. All over the world Indian artists are invited to perform and
participate in various festivals and occasions. In the last few decades the
status of dance as well as its performers has changed. Young people have
started learning dance to enrich their personal qualities. In some of the
schools, colleges and universities separate departments have been established
for imparting training in dance. Several renowned classical dancers have been
awarded national awards like the Padmashree and the Padmabhusan.