INTRODUCTION bad intentions towards each other but ultimately each


thesis is titled “India Factor in Pak-Russia Relations: Challenges and
Prospects”. Under said title, the researcher intends to study the evolving
relational dynamics between Russia and Pakistan keeping in view the India
factor and evaluating the challenges and prospects of Pak-Russia partnership.

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1.1. Problem Statement

The existent
conflict between India and Pakistan carves out the political landscape of South
This dominant feature leads to absorption of external power rivalries and
meander them into bilaterally symmetric conflict going on between the two
historic adversaries i.e. Pakistan and India.2
Keeping in view the political history of relationship between Russia and
Pakistan, it can be said that the two states have often ended up presiding the
opposite sides in each conflicting scenario. The relation between these two
states has often been carved out as a by-product of the very nature of United
States of America (USA) relationship with Pakistan vis a vis India’s relationship
with Russia.3

Pakistan got
incepted in 1947- the critical era of Cold War at international level was going
on between two blocs i.e. United States of America (USA) and the then Soviet
Eventually, Pakistan’s Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan sought to visit USA,
hence posing pro-western foreign policy.

Pakistan’s India-consciousness, the West manipulated her up to its utility
throughout the past. Due to stringent conditions of Cold War, India could not
strictly maintain its non-aligned policy and inched closer to Soviet Union to
counter Pakistan-USA partnership. No matter, Russia and Pakistan had no bad
intentions towards each other but ultimately each of them was equally guilty of
forging closer ties with other’s adversary which widened the gap between
Pakistan and Russia.

At the end of
Cold War India thought that owing to outdated East-West rivalry, Russian
Federation has lost its urge to support India versus Pakistan.5
Meanwhile, Russia continued with a neutralized stance towards India as well as
Pakistan. After 9/11, Pakistan adopted anti-Taliban posture was warmly welcomed
by Russia.6
This provided both states with a common ground upon which future bilateral relations
were to be nurtured.

However, in 2005, USA
and India entered into strategic partnership and finalized a civil nuclear
deal.7 The Indo-US nexus is in direct conflict with Russian
and Pakistani regional interests. Furthermore, increasing
amiability between USA and India left both, Pakistan and Russia, insecure. For this, Russia has extended fraternal ties towards
Pakistan, India’s historical adversary, to which Pakistan has equally
reciprocated. This development provided them with another major
outlook to kick start new avenues of cooperation with each other, hence
diluting the baggage of bitter past experiences. 

However, it is rational
to mention here that global power center is now shifting to Asia and Russia
consciously realizes this strategic change. In the realm of defence
cooperation, both countries, Russia and Pakistan, can prove to be reliable
allies. Therefore, it is in Russia’s interest to forge new alliances in the
region. It can, thus, be concluded that Russia and Pakistan are foreseeing an
unprecedented era of convergence between them. Though still in a nascent stage,
it signals a promising prospect for both, Russia and Pakistan. However, India’s
role and response towards this development would be another aspect of this

1.2. Literature Review

The article
titled ‘Pak-Russia Relations: Lost Opportunities and Future Options’ written by
Nazir Hussain provides a critical analysis of historical factors that greatly
moulded Pak-Russia relations.8  After drawing lessons from the past, the
author has carved out future policy options that need to be adopted by Pakistan
in emerging geo-strategic environment.

The article
titled ‘Pakistan-Russia Relations: Progress, Prospects and Constraints’ written
by M Hanif gives a brief account of Pak-Russia relations. The author has
chalked out many recommendations for mending ties between two states in the
face of strong opposition posed by USA and India.

Chandra Rekha in
one of her article titled ‘Is Russia Mending its Ties with Pakistan at India’s
Cost?’ has introspected the reasons behind Russian recent tilt towards Pakistan
as well as quantifies the cost that would be inflicted upon India in its
backdrop.9 Moreover,
she opines that Russia is successfully engaging three Asian powers i.e. India,
China and Pakistan, in order to drive its ‘Pivot to Asia’ strategy effectively.
Russia is mature enough to accommodate each power with in their sphere of

The article
titled ‘The Russia-Pakistan Rapprochement: Should India Worry?’ by Uma
Purushothaman critically analysis recent Pak-Russia rapprochement.10 The
author looks forward to Russia to play a constructive role for neutralizing
tensions between India and Pakistan.

Korybko, a Russian analyst, acknowledges the increasing geostrategic importance
of Pakistan in his article titled ‘Pakistan is the “Zipper” of Pan-Eurasian
Integration’.11 He acclaims that Russia
aims to develop ties with Pakistan in full spectrum. It greatly aspires to
integrate Pakistan in the multipolar Eurasian Union framework, the idea which
is being materialized under Russia and China strategic partnership.

1.3. Theoretical Framework

1.3.1. Realism

According to realist school of thought of
international relations among states, there are neither permanent friends nor
permanent foes. What remains intact and supreme is the national interest of the
states. For successfully pursuing ones national interests, states go for
internal balancing i.e. power maximization, or external balancing, i.e.
alliance formulation. Application of Theory

of the developments along with changing regional dynamics led the Pakistan
foreign policy maker to revisit their options and decisions. In the meantime,
Russia overtured towards Pakistan in order to checkmate USA influence in the
region. Pakistan and Russia soon realized that it is inevitable to ignore each
other and hence started working towards exploring avenues of cooperation. Later, Russia and Pakistan found a plenty of
converging interest, at bilateral and international level, between them. Here,
they worked together to shed the baggage of historical bitterness and searching
new avenues of cooperation in order to conjointly deal with the shared
challenges. However, outside forces are working hard to highlight their past
worst experiences to minimize their chances of future bonhomie. Nevertheless,
Russia and Pakistan are nurturing their ties up to the level of maturity, hence
blurring the past perceptions and building constructive and mutually beneficial

1.4. Significance of Study

regional dynamics has brought two historical opponents, Russia and Pakistan,
closer to each other. Both states have adopted afresh posture towards each
other. They are looking forward to exploit new avenues of cooperation.
Meanwhile, a lot of factors provide substantive pretext to each state for
forging closer ties with each other in the emerging new geo-political scenario
in the region. While, Pakistan is over done with USA policy to ‘use and abuse’
and now wants to broaden up its regional options. On the other hand, Russia
witnessed that its traditional strategic partner is now more tilted towards USA
and west. Moreover, Russia has realized that only relying on its sole partner
in the region, India, will not pay off in the emerging geopolitical scenario.
So, Russia is also on its endeavor to expand its regional options.

1.5. Research Questions

v  Why Indian factor plays a pivotal
role in Pak-Russia relations?

 How Pak-Russia relations have evolved

factors catalyze Pak-Russia closeness?

Russia is likely to balance her relations with India and Pakistan?

India is wary towards Pak-Russia growing ties?

are the challenges and prospects of Pak-Russia relations?

1.6. Hypothesis

factor plays an important role for bringing Pakistan and Russia closer’.

1.7. Research Methodology

This research is
exploratory and descriptive in nature. Deeply discussing the type of research,
it is analytical, empirical, quantitative, qualitative and applied research in

The methods and techniques
adopted by researcher includes reading, critically analyzing, deconstructing
already available literature; analyzing content of statements issued by Foreign
Office and important state representatives; interviewing (In-depth as well as E-interview)
participants in order to get feedback from experts having deep insight on this
topic and attending seminar and conferences in order to get view point of
experts in Academia.

1.8. Motivation in Research

The motivation behind opting this topic is majorly intrinsic.
Pakistan and Russia conducted their first joint military exercise, named
Druzhba-2016, meaning Friendship-2016. The Russian contingent reached Pakistan
in spite of India’s unease and allegations on Pakistan for instigating Uri
attack. This development blew a fresh soul into Pak-Russia relations. The
researcher got intrigued to introspect the new dimensions of this emerging
partnership. Moreover, the researcher wanted to calculate the Indian response
and role regarding this development.

1.9. Aims and Objectives in Research

v  Exploratory

To explore the historical bitter experiences that
majorly carved out the Pakistan and Russia relations throughout the past,
drawing them apart. Moreover, the role played by India, throughout history,
would also be introspected.

v  Descriptive

To describe underlying factors behind recent bonhomie
between Russia and Pakistan, particularly starting from the year 2010. As well
as, it is intended to describe India’s reaction towards this development.

v  Diagnostic

To diagnose the current underlying factors those are
working as a catalyst to bring Pakistan and Russia even closer, particularly
the India factor.

v  Avoiding errors in reasoning

In order to avoid over generalized approach and
illogical reasoning towards the relationship of Pakistan and Russia, since
history to till date. This would help out to neutralize past bitterness,
misperceptions and provide constructive avenues for cooperation in future.

1.10. Data Collection

Primary data (Obtrusive) will be generated by
conducting interviews (in-depth) with the professionals having expertise and
keen perceptiveness. My personal observations and experience will also be
included in primary data. 

Secondary data (Non Obtrusive) will be collected
through books, journal articles, articles from newspapers and data bases from
think tanks. 

1.11. Participants

Andrew Korybko is a political analyst
as well as contributor to several online journals. Also, he is member of expert
council for the Institute of Strategic Studies and Predictions at the People’s
Friendship University of Russia. His area of expertise includes Russian affairs
and geopolitics, specifically the US strategy in Eurasia. 

Peter Krasnopolsky is an expert on Russia studies.
Currently, he is pursuing his Phd from the University of Nottingham, Ningbo,

Chandra Rekha is an Indian expert on Indo-Russia
relations. Currently, she is a Research Associate at the Centre for Air Power
Studies (CAPS), New Delhi.

Officials from Ministry of Foreign Affairs of

1.12. Ethical Issues

Following ethical issues would be taken into
consideration and minimizing them would be ensured:

Voluntary and informed consent of the participants
will be ensured.

Ascertained anonymity and confidentiality of
person/institution, if asked, for the period of five to seven years.

It will be assured that no harm is caused to
participant, of any nature, ranging from professional, ethical, moral, social
well-being, alike.

Ethics for Academic Community will be strictly

Chapterization and Time Frame

The scheme of study that would be adopted to undergo
the planned research work systematically is as follows:

Chapter 1- Introduction (8 weeks)

The very
first chapter would constitute of statement of problem under study, literature
review of already available pieces of literature, theoretical framework,
research questions, hypothesis, scope of the study, objectives of the study,
significance of the study, methods and methodology.

Chapter 2- History of Pak-Russia Relations (3 weeks)

chapter would be focused upon historical evaluation of relations between Russia
and Pakistan since 1947 to 2010.

Chapter 3- Evolving Dynamics of Pak-Russia Relations (2 weeks)

chapter would be focused upon the relational development undertaking from year
2011 to May 2017.

Chapter 4- Factors Catalyzing Pak-Russia Closeness (8 weeks)

chapter would embark upon the major factors that acted as a catalyst for
Pak-Russia growing fraternal ties.

Chapter 5- India’s Wariness towards Pak-Russia Growing Ties (2 weeks)

chapter would solely focus upon India’s reaction, apprehensions and wariness,
towards growing ties between Russia and Pakistan.

Chapter 6- Challenges and Prospects (6 weeks)

this chapter, challenges and prospects brought by growing ties between Russia
and Pakistan would be analyzed vis a vis subliming the Indian factor,


Tahir Amin, “Pakistan-Russia relations and the unfolding “new
great game” in South Asia,” The regional
security puzzle around Afghanistan: bordering practices in Central Asia and
beyond. Opladen : B. Budrich, (2016). – ISBN 978-3-8474-0912-0,
pp. 191-206. URL:


Muhammad Taimur Fahad Khan, “Renaissance in Pakistan-Russia Relations,” Institute of Strategic Studies, Islamabad (December
27th, 2016): 2

Gulandam Mian, “Challenges and Prospects of Pak-Russia Relations in the
Evolving Multi-polar World,” Centre for
International Strategic Studies, Quarterly News and Views (2016) URL:

Mark A Smith, “Russia’s Relations with India & Pakistan,” Conflict Studies Research Centre, (August

Nazir Hussain, Qurrat ul Ain Fatima, “Pak-Russian Relations: Historical
Legacies and New Beginnings,” Central
Asia, Issue No.72, Summer 2013 (Published in June 2015), pp.1-15.

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Asia,” 211-229.

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Issue-1 (2012), 79-89

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Uma Purushothaman, “The Russia-Pakistan Rapprochement: Should India Worry?” Observer Research Foundation, ISSUE
BRIEF No. 117, NOVEMBER 2015.

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