IntroductionOccupational stress or job stress is one of the majorfactor causing physiological, psychological and behavioural effects onemployees at workplace and in turn severely effecting the employee performance.In the recent past several studies reported the ill effects of occupationalstress like diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery diseases, musculoskeletaldisorders. The occupational stress has been great concern to employees andstakeholders of the organizations because the job stress has been linked to lowproductivity, absenteeism, behavioural changes, employee dissatisfaction andhealth problems. The International Labour Organization Reports that the effectof occupational stress roughly costs up to 10 percent of a country’s grossnational product (Midgley, 1996).
The technological changes, redesign of jobsand advent of scientific management principles led to the simplification andfragmentation of jobs into highly repetitive and routine tasks (Rosenstock etal. 2005). According to the National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, occupational stress is defined as the stress that occurswhen the needs of job is not aligned with the employee’s abilities, availableresources, and expectation of the employer and causing physical and emotionalresponses (NIOSH, 2014).
Stress is man’s adaptive reaction to an outwardsituation which would lead to physical, mental and behavioural changes. Theenvironment, social stressors, physiological and thoughts are the four basic sourcesa personal can experience the stress (Matthews 2001). Levi (1998) studied theinfluence of psychological stressors influence on health through emotional,cognitive, behaviour and psychological factors. The workload, lack of jobcontrol, job insecurity, inadequate social support, extended working hours andlack of rewards also cause occupational stress and effect the performance(Loosemore and Waters, 2004, Prasad et al.
2015, 2016, 2017). Burton et al.2006 reported that risk factors of occupational stress include smoking,hypertension, obesity, and job type in his study with financial servicescompany. The long working hours, shift work, occupational stress lead tounhealthy habits like smoking, alcohol abuse, and disinterest in work andeffect the performance at work place (Uehata 1991).
The stress is notescapable in modern life and the workplaces are becoming volatile stressfactories. Though stress harms human beings in several ways, howeverappropriate amount stress can actually trigger one’s passion for work taphis/her latent abilities and ignites inspiration, thus yields positive results.Stress exists in every aspect of the life and employees from while collaredemployees, workers, teachers, supermarket employees and professionals. As the stressexists everywhere, we have conducted this study surveying agricultural researchsector employees in and around Hyderabad. The data was collected from theemployees of state agricultural universities, national agricultural researchcenters, international agricultural research institutes, and agricultural seedindustries.