Introduction”Over 24,000 Childline meetings were held withchildren regarding about bullying in 2016 to 2017″, NSPCC Annual Report (2016).The central theme of this research project is an examination of a teacher’sperception of how bullying affects student development. Evaluating on why Ichose this sensitive topic is because I think bullying appears to be a regularcase in society, as it has been increasing in many schools. Bullying is a majoroffence which could result in dangerous measures therefore, this is one of thereasons why it is important to address.
Bullying can take form in differentways such as making an offence statement, physical violence or coercion. My aimis to find out what strategies primary school teachers use to deal withbullying and if it is effective to the situation. I will do this byinterviewing a primary school teacher. My future profession is to become ateacher and it is essential for me to understand why bullying happens and inwhat way it affects student development.
I think schools, parents and thegovernment should be conscious of bullying and must consider the consequencesas it could lead students to suffer emotionally, physically and intellectually.Literaturereview This research project discusses a teacher’sperception of how bullying affects student development, I would first like toexplore one of my key themes which are Social Isolation. Dr Ken Shore’sdefinition of social isolation is when an individual has no contact with othersor the society. Bullying can cause many negative impacts on a child’spsychological health and wellbeing, also their academic progress. Associationof Teachers and Lecturers Education Union 2008, primary school teachers believechildren become stressed when they are involved in bullying. They also witnessa change in their behaviour, in such cases, they isolate themselves anddisengage in learning. Clery, E.
and Ferguson, C. (2011) provided research,16,000 students aged 10- 15 years do not attend school due to the impacts ofbullying. This reinforces the fear of students attending school due tobullying. Every Child Matters 2003 states, children who do not attend schooldisconnect themselves with their own learning as it causes issues within theirown education and wellbeing as it decreases their self-esteem.
Hence, why do children go through this disturbingexperience? Well, Olweus à Limber, (2010) state, some children want to dominateothers within their peer groups. This is the reason why victims detachthemselves from others which causes them not to make friends in schools.Students who go through this, feel traumatised and want to be left alonebecause they feel embarrassed about what is happening to them.
Teachers maybelieve students tend to harm others because they may shadow this behaviour athome and copy the actions Myrna B. Shure PhD “Behaviour Copying. I think the media and television, forexample, wrestling, can influence children to act in an aggressive way, thisrefers to Albert Bandura (1961) Social Learning Theory and experimentation(Bobo Doll). Bandura’s research showed 60% of children enhanced their learningby seeing other actions, demonstrations and live models. Secondly, Lancet Psychiatry established a journalwhich declared children who go through bullying, have a major risk of mentalhealth problems that can continue throughout their lives. Mental HealthFoundation (1949) stated children, suffer from health issues like anxiety,depression and self-harm.
According to the Journal of School Violence teachersand parents recommend, bullying should be taken more seriously as it is tooaccepted in schools which causes the situation to still repeat. Therefore, Ithink schools should produce some sort of advocacy groups, so children havesomeone that speaks for them as it may be hard for children to express theiremotions.Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry (2012),reviewed the risk factors for bullying and mental health. Students who arebullied in schools were four times more likely to develop a mental illness suchas anxiety than children who do not experience bullying Mark Greener December(2015).
This causes children from small years to suffer from harmful effects,which can cause an interference in their future as their self-esteem andconfidence levels may decrease. BullyingPolicies Schools need to address bullying to create asupportive environment, to do this they follow the guidelines from theDepartment of Education. Therefore, staff members should consider theimportance of following the protocol of bullying. Stop Bullying (2016) statesschools do not take bullying seriously can have the influence of students tolose interest in education. Why do teachers need to follow policies? I think ifteachers do not act on the policies within the schools they may neglect thesituations of bullying behaviours.
Students may feel they are not importanttherefore, they not depend on the teacher for help or protection, MacNeil , (2004). Behaviour policies ensure, every individual in the settingfeels respected and important. The importance of placing behaviour policies isto ensure teachers work together to create a friendly environment for everyindividual, Behaviour and discipline in schools (2016). Overall, thisreinforces the development of students and their character attributes, such asself-awareness. However, J.C Piech argues placing anti-bullying policy isfutile because it is not effective. The government states it is compulsory forschools to have policies, however, why are so many children still affected andsuffering from bullying. Moreover, as bullying is a difficult circumstancewhich leads to violence and crime, the government and school have placedprocedures to prevent bullying.
These procedures have been addressed by schoolsplacing written lawful documents from headteachers such as anti-bullyingpolicies. Education and Inspections Act (2006), behaviour policies need toreassure good behaviour and children, staff members and parents need toacknowledge the importance of this policy. I think implementing this policy onschool premises also has its advantages as students would know how to behave inother settings. However, Bullying UK helpline has also expressed concerns aboutthe government not accomplishing long-term action plans to support children.
Nor, the government has independent assessments of the anti-bullying policiesthat schools produced. Therefore, the key issue is being the policies inschools effective to students? StudentSupport More importantly, children require support andguidance when dealing with a serious situation like bullying. VictoriaEducation Training (2017) states, possible issues can occur when students aregoing through bullying; behaviour changes, decrease in school performance, lackof interaction between family and other social relationships. It has beenshown, schools use the multi-disciplinary and child-centred approach as it isthe most effective approach to use when dealing with students who have beengoing through the experience, Tackling Bullying: Listening to the Views ofChildren and Young People (2003). Multi-disciplinary and the child-centredapproach is when professionals come together and ensure the child is providedwith the significant support they need. This include professionals; teachers,parents, counsellors, mentors and assistant teachers come together to ensurethe best for the child. The results show the students are gaining support toimprove their development.
Social Interaction and Student Learning (2013),teachers believe encouraging children to attend school clubs would allow themto engage with other children. This will also help increase theircommunication, confidence and recover the effects of bullying. I personallythink the buddy systems is a great way to help children with socialinteraction. This will provide children with a friend and encouragement, DeLangue et al (1981). Hunter, Cath “Child Approach and Behaviour” states theimpacts of bullying is negative as children tend to isolate themselves, howeverusing the child-centred approach benefits the child as teachers are focusing onthe child and their needs. This would support student’s social development asthey would stop isolating themselves. Student Engagement and Experience Journaldeclares children’s needs are being met by this approach because of professionalsand parents working in partnership.
I think using this method will indeedsupport the child’s wellbeing as well as improving their confidence andself-esteem levels. Parental involvement helps students that arebullied in schools. Parent get to assess and understand children’s feelings bywitnessing themselves, Department for Children, Schools and Families (2007).The parents can support students emotional and intellectual development byworking with them. However, bullying can cause lack of attendance in schoolbecause of their frightened emotions, Henderson and Mapp (2002). Anotherbenefit of parental involvement in creating a home environment for the student,so they feel comfortable and develops their social interaction with peers.Parents allowing students to go to social events where the child can meet newpeople, However, Levin (1984) state parental involvement is not effectivebecause parents do not understand teacher methods and notice a lack of interestin student’s education.
In addition, schools implement the Zero toleranceto bullying policy which encourages individuals to come together and promote anaction to bullying. Roland et al (2009), stated using this approach sets atarget, which improves student’s interactions with peers and synthesis in oneanother. Furthermore, students may not understand what bullying is, hence Ithink it is important for teachers to guide students about the measures andimpacts bullying could promote. Barone, (1997); Quinn et al (2003) staterole-playing demonstrates the whole concept of bullying which ensures studentsto understand the impacts bullying could portray.
I think this is an approachthat increases the insight among peers. ResearchApproach and Methodology Qualitative and Quantitative are common paradigmsthat are used as methods for research. Qualitative also known as non-positivistmeasure data by interpreting opinions and experiences (Anderson, 2004, inCreswell, 1994). Quantitative also known as positivist measure data in anumerical and statistical aspect, Punch (1998). However, my research is carried out on an interpretive approach which iscombined with qualitative data. The main purpose why I chose this approach isbecause it would develop my research using the method of interviews. My aim wasto examine and collect a teacher perspective of how student development isimpacted by the experiences of bullying and what the teacher’s approaches areto support students.
The University of Lancaster states the quantitative methodprovides numerical data. This would not help me find out teacher’s perspectiveon how to support students with bullying. It does not help me find detailedinformation and explanations about the student development, different impactsand teaching approaches to support students with bullying. Valerie Anderson”Research Methods in Human Resource Management”, stated the quantitative datais superficial. I did not consider the positivist approach because I did notwant to obtain limited results in forms of numerical outcomes. I wanted to havedetailed results which provide more elaborated opinions and perceptions.
In this research project, I will be reflecting onan interview with a teacher. The interpretive approach has benefits as itpermits a participant to provide their opinions on how bullying affects studentdevelopment. I thought it was important to have a teacher’s perspective as theyare involved in student bullying more often. Considering a teacher’sperspective because they have a wider insight, experience and knowledge aboutstudents. I personally want to understand how bullying affects studentdevelopment and in what ways this can be prevented. I also used this methodbecause it does indeed benefit the researcher, as it provides answers withopinions (P Sheeran, 1993).
This is vital because it would provide me withvaluable understanding from an authentic perspective of participant A.Utilising this method provided benefits which allowed me to obtain valid dataabout the participant’s attitude, values and opinions. However, there are alsodisadvantages of the method such as it is biased. The interpretive approach ismainly observed by my participant’s experience and opinions. Another detrimentwas I obtained only represented one perspective, hence results are not valid.The semi-structured interview was conducted in thisproject with a teacher’s perception of how bullying affects studentdevelopment. I chose this qualitative method because it establishes a set ofopen questions which means I would obtain detailed answers from the participantwhich will result in deeper discussions.
Moreover, the benefits of thisapproach are it provided an opportunity to investigate different matters withinthe topic. Bernard (1988), started using semi-structured interview benefits whenquestioning one participant when gathering data. University of Bournemouth(2014) touches on the positives of the semi-structured method and states it isan organised method. This helped me on this project as it allowed me to preparefor the interview and portrayed efficiency in the interview.
Further discussingthe advantages of the method is it allows the participant to express theiropinions in their own words, National Institute for Health Research “Anintroduction to Qualitative Research”. Reliability and validity is the purpose ofexamining of measuring the collection of data and the quality of it in theproject. The terms of reliability and validity are planted and used more in theQuantitative approach, has the function of explaining.
However, it is also usedin the Qualitative approach but considered and used in a different aspect whichis the function of understanding. Stenbacka, (2001, p. 551). Analysing theresearch project, I believe the data is unreliable this is because I onlyinterviewed one participant.
I only collected one perspective, therefore, mydata is unreliable. However, Bassey (2004) stated reliability and validity arenot considered in interviews alternatively other terminology like credibilityand trustworthiness are used. Lincoln and Guba, 1985, in Bassey, (2014) Moreover, credibility is used to obtaintrustworthiness by using different methods to gather data, Seale (1999).However, in this case, my project only collected one perspective, if I had alarge-scale project I would use additional methods like observations. I wouldobserve to witness the engagement between student’s behaviour in classrooms andthe playground. I would also use observations to witness teachers in practice.In addition, to collect my data I had to make notes during the face to faceinterview which was held for 20 minutes.
I considered making notes forexamining and interpreting the interview, Oxford Academic Journal (2008). Ethical considerations were conducted during andafter my research project. I had to ensure to take a professional manner andconsider all ethical duties. Furthermore, it is vital the participantacknowledges the ethical fundamentals. This is necessary because it willprotect the participant’s identity and be keeping their information isconfidential.
In addition, I also got informed consent from participant A andmy module teacher. These are aspects which will minimise any ethical issues, Ialso informed the participant the key information about my project. Preserving anonymity by changing the name toparticipant A, this is central, so their identity is protected. As I am usingthe qualitative approach there is more ethical consideration than quantitative.Using the qualitative approach, the researcher will have a professional relationshipwith the participant which will result in more detailed answers. Stevens (2013)states, ethics is important in a qualitative approach. I thought it wasimportant to develop a rapport with the participant. This will help reinforce apositive confidential environment, where the participant trusts me, BritishPsychology Society (2010).
Results Firstly, participant A’s defines “bullying” as aphysical, intellectual and emotional attack. The teacher’s perception ofbullying is, students use force to gain dominance and power. Participant Ainformed me “there’s a sequence from bullying and illness”. I found outparticipant A believes bullying causes low self-esteem and confidence levelswhich results in mental illness like depression. Similarly, this relates to theliterature I found Lancet Psychiatry and the journal JAMA Psychiatry, suggestsstudents can gain mental illness like depression and anxiety because ofbullying. Moreover, participant, A perspective is student’s development ofsocial interaction will decrease. For example, the participant informedexamples of impacts on bullying such as isolation and loneliness.
Participant A”I witnessed students isolating from friendship groups which causes them tofeel low and depressed”. However, participant A used methods which portrayedall professionals working together to maintain and provide the needs of thestudent. Participant A uses therapy counselling to support students as theycould express their feelings, also the centred child pedagogy which supports theneeds of students. Moreover, when conducting the interview, Icritically analysed the guidance participant A uses to support students. Forinstance, the zero-tolerance policy helps prevent bullying in the setting. Thisrelates to Department of Education (2014) policies because enhancing policiesis an aspect to support students, as it develops a new positive environment.Reviewing the literature, it also states the Anti-bullying approach have shownpositive impacts in preventing and tackling bullying at schools. However, it isimportant to promote these programs correctly.
Therefore, Participant Asuggested individuals in the school including staff and parents need to portraysupport for the tackling and prevention policies, for it to function with its optimumpotential.My results showed student development has an impactdue to bullying. Participant A informed me her experience when she had tohandle a situation of bullying behaviour. She claimed students who are bulliedaffect different developments such as social development.
She informed mesocial development decreases as the pupils would isolate or be rejected bystudents. Therefore, she thought it would be helpful if she refers the studentto a professional counsellor were the students can express their emotions whichsupports their emotional and social development. Participant A thought it was agood idea to reinforce buddy system in the classroom. This relates to thesocial isolation and student support. This provides students to be sociallyinteractive and supports the student to overcome barriers and impacts whichbullying has caused.
Participant A called in parental involvement to show thatthe student is important and professionals in school and home, care about thestudent’s well-being and health. This will prevent bullying as it will modelparents to support bullies and victims. This relates to Maslow Hierarchy ofNeeds (1943).
Belonging is important as it contributes to self-esteem andself-actualisation. Therefore, using this theory examines impacts of bullyingwhich shows it is not safe, Maslow declares if students do not have theirphysical needs, safety and belonging needs it would be hard for a student toacknowledge or even achieve their own attainment in learning and behaviour.Lastly, Participant A states it is important the student acknowledge they areimportant, so teachers, parents and others do care about them. Reviewing the literature and the results, it showsnumerous encounters about how bullying is a crime and impacts students.
Thisrelates to the data I collected from participant A as she expressed the impactsstudents prone when involved in the bullying experience. She stated academicperformance decrease, depression, anxiety, and emotional levels increase.Participant A views are these impacts can continue throughout their life. Evaluation The reason why I chose to embark on bullying isthat it is a factor I experienced while growing up.
I feel bullying should nothappen to anyone and educational settings should measure bullying veryseriously. When deciding about bullying and student development as my researchproject, I thought it would affect myself as I was bullied in the past whichmay interfere the research as I would be biased by putting my own opinions andthoughts about bullying. I was bullied intellectually, I realised by researching,it can connect to emotional results. For instance, verbally commenting aboutothers intelligence can relate to emotional development, as they may feelemotionally upset about what’s been said to them. I personally went throughthis and know how it feels. Therefore, it was hard to put my views aside whenconducting this research. In the future I would recommend analysing andconducting with a partner so there’s more than one view on the research, alsoadditional methods like observations this would make my results reliable.
Evaluating in this study, I had challenges inconducting this research project. One of them was thinking and producing thethemes to start the literature. During the readings for my topic, I then cameacross many themes however I knew I required to narrow it down to threeinteresting themes. Making the decision of choosing themes for my researchproject was difficult, however, I thought I will carry on my readings then pickout three important themes to me which were student support, school andgovernment policies and lastly student isolation. Therefore, the readingssupported me to explore different themes and literature which I can relate tomy topic of bullying. I noticed my academic skills improved as I started toanalyse, interpret, understand the readings and the data.
I extended myknowledge by providing supportive research within my literature which made meunderstand different perspectives for bullying. In addition, during my research project, I also hadan implication which was two important factors for me which were time andavailability. The implication of availability was having a participant who wasavailable from their busy schedule. This was a practical issue as I needed tohave a teacher’s perception of bullying therefore, I needed a teacher. However,I managed to have a teacher meet me with me, so I can receive the data I need.
However, due to participant A busy schedule I had to cut the time to 20minutes, this affected the results I obtained. However, I managed to overcomethis by making notes when interviewing to examine and portray what the resultsare. Writing notes within the interview was a challenge but in the future, Iwould change the way I conduct the data by using a recording device withpermission and transcript the data as I would have much more understanding thisway. This will help me interpret the data more than only writing up notes.The value of this project was to find out,participant A approaches to support students who have been bullied. I found outthere are many strategies which participant A uses for student development whenit’s been affected by bullying.
For instance, relating to my literature where Istarted using the multi-disciplinary and child-centred approach benefitschildren as it listens to views of students and supports them to stop bullying.However, I also found out bullying is common and occurs in schools. It createsa school social climate which influences students. My views when analysing thisresearch is school’s social climate act as a variable and connects with socialinteraction and peer interaction. I recommend teachers and the governmentshould measure and promote bullying as a serious offence as it is indeed aterrible crime.
An example of this is benefiting students with socialinteractive workshops. This results in supporting student’s developmentsocially, intellectually and physically. Overall, my perspectives towards theresearch developed as I think teachers need to enhance on anti-bullyingprograms to ensure bullying is prevented. This will ensure and maintain asupportive environment for students and interactions between teachers andparents. I think this is vital because it can minimise the bullying behaviourby enhancing more interventions.