Introduction This pressure can be applied directly and indirectly

Introduction

Background

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Conformity or normative social influence is the
change in a person’s behavior or manner to what they think others will like and
accept and avoid those behaviors that they think others will not like and
accept. This kind of conformity depends on the primary need of human being to
be loved and gain acceptance and avoiding rejection (Zimbardo, ,
1991).

Peer pressure is any kind of pressure applied by
peoples of the same age group. It is also encouraging and giving support to
another person to participate in a particular kind of behavior. In other words
it is a narrow concept of expectations that come from a peer group towards an
individual to act in a specific way without considering the interest and desire
of the person. This pressure can be applied directly and indirectly to an individual
(Kiren, 2003) (Sim, & Koh, 2003). At the time of adolescence, peer
association becomes more important than ever. It helps to develop their
closeness, increase their social competence, and build up their self concept
and identity by interacting with significant others (Klarin, 2006).

As it was identified by Clasen and Brow, peer
pressure have five domains that adolescents are challenged to confront with,
those are family, school like academic and non academic activities peer like
hanging out with friends when they have free time, peer customs like dressing
style, and misconducts or bad behaviors (Clasen and Brown (1985).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Statement
of the problem

Current 
researches  say that it is not
important  to observe the conformity of a
person  but rather we can ask what
peoples would do if they are faced with some conditions that they have to
conform then we can measure their answer(Parks, Sanna, & Berel, 2001).

Lashbrook studied that sometimes adolescents use
conformity to get away from frightening circumstance. He also found that
adolescents will face negative emotions like isolation, failure, haplessness,
embarrassment and other when they think they are being pressured by their peers
(lashbrook, 2000).

This conformity is most of the time proceeded by
positive reinforcement like appreciation, respected status and membership to
the peer group. Those adolescents which disagree to conform will be punished with
isolation. In contrast adolescents who are obsessed with high status and care
about what others think about them are always scared of being left out from the
group, but those who don’t conform will be challenged by rejection that will
bring anxiety (Leary, 1990).

The developmental stage of adolescents is filled
with peer influence. At this stage adolescents try to achieve their autonomy in
many aspects, wants to experience freedom. But to achieve their friends
recognition and approval they will conform even if they don’t like or believe
in it. But when they grow up to adulthood peer group approval and conformity
will not be as important as they were in adolescence (Brown et al.,1986).

Majority of researches about sexual attitude have
been done on adults or college students, not much is done on not much is done
on younger adolescents who are at risk of making up their own mind about the
correct and in correct sexual relation and activities. This same study states
that sexual attitude of teens who are in there early sexual development and are
interested in sexual materials they will try to meet their interest, by doing so
they will start to seek other material that will arouse their sexual feelings (Malamuth
, 2005). Other experimental findings with adolescents said that
male’s attitude and action is influenced by experiencing sexual videos, movies
and pictures than females (Ward, 2003).

It has also been studied that adolescent’s parents
opinion and attitude toward sex is different for the gender of their children
they are talking to. Most of the time moms talk to their daughter than they
talk to their sons about sexual attitude. Similarly lots of females talk to
their moms than males does about parental attitude towards sex (Cosby & Miller, 2002).

 

 

 

 

Research
question

This research ask questions like: is there an
association between normative conformity and peer pressure towards sexual
attitude? Does the level of conformity differ as the grade level of the
students increase from grade 9 to grade 12? What is the degree of peer pressure
among high school students? Is there any difference in sexual attitude of the
students from one grade to another? Is there a significant difference between
boys and girls on their sexual attitude?

 

Data collection instrument

The student researcher will use the peer pressure
inventory (PPI) for measuring peer pressure. This measurement was made,
introduced and validated by Donna Rae Calasen and B. Bradford Brown in 1985(Clasen,
& Brown, 1985). Peer pressure inventory was made to measure and evaluate
the view about peer pressure in many different areas like peer group action,
bad behavior, participation in school, attachment with family, and conformity
to the peer custom. It has53 items by which it is answered by 7-point scale
showing if the adolescents are feeling pushed to do or not to do some
activities and it also shows the degree they are being pressured. This scale is
chosen because a study in the past has shown the scale’s validity reliability
and internal uniformity. The higher the scores are in the scale the more there
is participation in peer activity, bad behavior and distractive behaviors
(Brown et al, 1986).

Sexual attitude is measured using the brief sexual
attitude scale. This scale was developed by Susan Hendrick , Clyde Hendrick
,and Dercy A. Reich in 2006. It has 23 items answered on 5 point scale from
strongly agree to strongly disagree. It is used to measure sexual
permissiveness or openness, practice, communion or intimacy, and
instrumentality or significance. The brief sexual attitude scale is found to
have a strong psychometric characteristics validity and reliability.  (Hendrick ,Hendrick.& Reich,2006). This
scale of measurement for sexual attitude is chosen by the student researcher
because the former and mostly used sexual attitude scale of 12- item, Guttman
scale, involves only 3 sexual attitude and does not measure other parts of sexuality
(Clayton,& Bokemeier,1980).

To measure normative conformity the researcher will
use the conformity scale. The conformity scale was developed by Mehrabian, A. and
Stefl, C. in 1995. It has 20 questions about the common values.it is answered
by saying conformity and non conformity. It has questions like “Basically, my
friends are the ones who decide what we do together”; and “I often rely on, and
act upon, the advice of others.” (Mehrabian & Stefl, 1995).