IntroductionThe following is my assignment for question 4 – The classical theory of administrative management made a profound contribution to the history of management thereby influencing current management practice. I will Discuss this statement by examining the theory of administrative management and give examples of its widespread application found in current work organisations.Main SectionTheoriesThere are 4 major theories of classical management dating from 1900 – 1950. These include:Taylor’s Scientific Management – This principle is based on the assumption that worker productivity could be greatly increased through an application of a scientific methodology. Taylor developed a series of experiments to test his theories. However, Talyor’s ideas were subjected to criticism over the year, partly as a result of misuse of his ideas by some owners and managers.Weber’s Bureaucracy – This theory is based on the idea that only through the operation of set rules and principles can organisations deliver long-term complex plans. Weber developed 6 major principles for running an effective organisation.Human Relations Approach – This theory is based on the idea that workers perform best when managers had a real concern for their wellbeing and that workers are motivated more by social needs than incentives given by managers.Fayols Administrative Management – I will seek to discuss administrative management as devised by Fayol in France in 1911. It is proposed to examine the theory and then provide examples as evidenced in current management practice. Fayol stated that an organisation’s business activities should be divided into 6 essential areas. These areas would be broken down into, Commercial, Finance, Accounting, Managerial, Technical & Security.Fayol was the only theorist to write about management. He also proposed 14 universal principles of management to guide managers. These principles can be widely found in current work organisations today and I have given examples below.Division of Labour – An important aspect for all organisations is to allocate employees to the appropriate role. A worker who is skilled and knowledgeable in his role will perform better than someone who is not. An organisation will try to recruit people with the necessary qualification and skills for each role. For very specialist jobs, this may be an essential requirement, while for other positions there may be a legal requirement to hire persons with certain qualifications, for example, Fire Officer. The Public Appointment Service advertises most of the jobs in the public sector and in conjunction with the employing authority, they set down the essential requirements for the position. This aspect doesn’t end with the recruitment of staff. Organisations still promote and encourage the upskilling and training of staff so that they may become more efficient and skilled in their job.Authority – Public sector organisations tend to run on a bureaucratic structure, where they have different levels of authority. Managers have sufficient authority over their staff. This would involve planning, delegating and checking the work of their staff as well as the daily tasks like approving leave etc. In the public sector, there is also a performance-related assessment that managers have to sign off with their staff.Discipline – An example of this would be the Civil Service Disciplinary Code (Civil Service Disciplinary Code, 2016 1). It sets out the required standards of conduct and work performance that all civil servants must adhere to. Within this, there are six steps that need to be followed when disciplinary procedures are to be taken.Unity of Command – This plays an important role for all staff. Employees would normally only have one direct manager. If tasks and related responsibilities are given to the employee by more than one manager, this may lead to confusion which may lead to possible conflicts for employees.Unity of Direction – Project plans and meetings play a key role today for managers in making sure that each part of the organisation is following in the same direction. Teams doing similar tasks, need to have one manager who has sole responsibility for making a single plan for his / her team. Through meetings, feedback can be received and recommendations can be implemented and passed to the team members.Subordination of individual interests to the general interests – Employees in the civil service are offered the same work conditions and terms for similar jobs.Remuneration – Similar to the previous point, all civil servants are offered a fair salary for their labour, based on the type and grade of the job. The pay and other conditions are outlined to the employee before commencing employment and these terms and conditions are continuously under review within talks between Government and trade unions.Centralisation – Staff in today’s civil service are encouraged to voice their opinion and surveys like the Civil Service Staff Engagement Survey (Civil Service Staff Engagement Survey, 2017 2) give all staff the opportunity to voice their opinion on various aspects of working within the civil service.Scalar Chain – In the public sector, the grading system is used and an organisation chart outlining the management structure of the organisation. Workers report to supervisors who report to middle managers, who report to senior managers.Order – Under health and safety legislation, the workplace has to meet certain minimum standards. For example, employers are required to keep and maintain sanitary and washrooms in a clean state. The employer must ensure that the physical environment of the place of work is adequate (Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 3). It would also be common practice for posters to be hung up around the workplace encouraging staff to be tidy and to clean up after themselves. Equity – Managers in the civil service attend numerous management training courses, where the importance of being fair when dealing with all employees is stressed.Stability of Tenure – Most managers work on a basis that a happy worker is a productive worker. Staff in the civil service are encouraged to broaden the skills and knowledge base. The aim is to keep the best workers within the organisation. If managers can’t satisfy the needs of workers, secondment arrangements are a viable option that organisations use today. This is great at giving experience to workers in areas that may not have been possible in his / her current job.Initiative – Workers are encouraged to take ownership of tasks. In my workplace, staff are encouraged to participate in networking groups for their relevant grades. This gives the staff of similar grades an opportunity to discuss concerns they may have. Its purpose is to encourage all grades to develop their own ideas and plans to make the workplace a better environment for us all.Esprit de Corps – Organisations promote social and team building activities. This helps build up a general good feeling within the workplace. Most public sector organisations have social clubs, which help organise social activities and events.ConclusionIn conclusion, the above assignment examined the contribution the classical theory of administrative management had on influencing current management practices. It shows that these theories are still widely used today.
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