“Inventions become perfect by slow improvement, and each step is itselfan invention.”- ‘Joseph Jastrow’. Everyupgrade taking place in the inventions and technologies have got the modernworld closer, but there are some extraordinary major inventions like the JetEngines whose innovation has transformed the invention for commercial use andare widely adopted today. These Engines have made the world fly high leaving adrastic impact on the late nineteen to the twentieth Century in the field of aviation.Well what are these engines that havecreated such a big bang on the aviation industry? In a common man’s term JetEngines are those which move the Aircraft forward with an enormous force whichis produced by tremendous thrust which sets off the airplane to fly faster to reachthe destinations in couple of hours.After patenting of the Enginedairplanes by Wright brothers in 1903/05, the first Airplane passenger flight inthe history flew on the 14th May 1908.
subsequently the inventors hadbeing keen on developing and improving airplanes and there operating system. Thetwo legendary engineers, Frank whittle of the United Kingdom and Hans Von Ohainof Germany, are renowned for the development of these Jet engines during theLate 1930’s.The researches anddevelopment by these legends let onto invention of the jet engines which furtheraccelerated expansion in the field of aviation. These engines fly much fasterat a higher altitude as 10,000-15,000about 33,000 to 49,000feet meters thanthe old model like the propeller –powered aircrafts.
Emergence and innovationpolicy in the early nineteenth century.The Jet Engines emergedin the early 90’s. It could besaid that the Jet-Engined Aircrafts became the median for the fighters of theWorld War II in the late 1940s and proved their advantage in the beginnings ofcommercial transport in the early 1950s. The technological development of the JetEngines with their low operating cost and high speed as compared to theStandard Propelled Engines led to massive expansion in the second half of the20th Century of the Commercial Air travel Industry.88Notwithstanding thisremarkable invention also had to overcome hurdles for early adoption of these engines. Sir Frank Whittle beingregarded as the father of the modern Jet Propulsion system had to perceive hisresearch on his own initiative as he was not supported officially for study anddevelopment of his ideas. Sir Frank whittle discoveredin the early 90’s that for the Aircrafts propeller weren’t essential because ofthe exhaust from the gas turbine could be used to propel the Aircraft ‘book 1 ‘ .
His idea of the turbo-jet engine, i.e. a gas turbinedriving a plane forward solely by its reaction to the jet of hot exhaust gas, werebrought to the attention ofthe RAFRoyal Air Force Commandant andwho laid it forward before the British Government.
The British Governmenttermed whittles ideas as impractical and failed to recognize potentials fordevelopment of these Jet engines.However, the Air Ministry arranged a meeting with Dr A A Griffith whohad being working on gas turbines for the aircraft and strongly favoured usingthem to drive propellers in the 1926s. Griffith rejected Sir Frank Whittlesproposals saying that his ‘Assumptions were Over-Optimistic’ and further reportednegatively to the Ministry, who acknowledged that his ideas were impractical. Book 1. Notwithstanding these circumstances whittle however with the littleofficial encouragement by the Air Ministry further stepped ahead and took outthe first patent for a turbo-jet in 19305. Thecopies of whittles patent were also made available in 1932 by the President of the Air Council declaring that there was no need for secrecy.Moreoverthese copies were purchased by the German Trade Commission in London andcirculated to the German Air Ministry (RML) and German aero-enginemanufacturers. Whittles patent lapsed in the1935 as he was unable to afford the renewalfees of £5.
00 as he received no royalties nor reimburse from the RAF. Despiteof this he continued to develop these engines with help of private funding and indue course incorporated his own company called ‘Power Jets Ltd.’ in 1936.Power Jets were able to complete their first engine ‘the whittle unit’in 1937 .On 30th June 1939 Dr Pye, Air Ministry’s Director ofScientific Research after witnessing one of the tests on the engine which reachedan speed of 16,000 rpm was convinced regarding the whittles research anddevelopments carried out on the Engines and triggered the Ministry about its achievability,which then started minimum funding in order to develop the flyable version ofthese engines.The Emergence of Innovation policy for these jet engines have existedsince in the early nineteenth century . Whittlesrevolutionary engine took to skies for the first time on 15th May1941 and changed history.
Thereafter the Air Ministry accordingly agreed topurchase whittles engines under a research contract and loaned them back toPower Jets for further testing and development covering all its costs under acontract between January1940 to June 1941. This policy of the Air Ministry hadput the company and the employees under the ‘Officials Secret Act’ as a resultof which none of the outsiders could fund or interfere in the development ofthese jet engines. Within weeks the W1 was ordered by the Air Ministry giving an expansionto the team of graduates and technicians. The British as a result had developeda successful engine which was used by Britain for homeless defence in the WorldWar II 11.
Afterthe first policies laid down in the development of the W1 the Ministry furtherstarted backing the funding of the larger engine called the ‘W2’ which weredeveloped by Power Jets in collaboration with Rolls-Royce. The Air Ministry subsequentlypromoted the development of these Jet Engines by placing a contract for the’Flight Engines’Thereafter the World War II the British shared whittles technology withthe United States which enabled General Electric to build their first JetFighter. It was illustrated that the Jet Engines revolutionised the world andforefront of the Aviation department. Undoubtedly if whittle would have notdeveloped his invention maybe today we would still have being living in the eraof poor and expensive transports.The patent system could have failed a qualitative invention, theresources and the R &D which was devotedfor the technological change. Just because of the Technology being vague orbecause of poor commercialisation could have lead to the delay of developmentof the Jet Aircrafts .the ideas that were termed impractical initially lead tothe major technological development of the jet engines in the 20thCentury due to which today has become easy to routinelyfly across the oceans and reason why the Civil aviation developed quickly. Today if you are boarding a Jet-propelledaircraft is just because of the Sir Frank Whittle who developed the Jet Enginedespite of it being rejected.
Given a second thought how rejection of patent just because thetechnology was way too ahead and early in the nineties could have devastatedthe history of Aviation and put to a standstill to the economic growth. Other Supporters The Development of Jetengines was supported by a few who believed in this revolutionary leap and madea contribution to the progress of Jet Engines.The U.S. Army in theMid 1930s supported the General Electric for the further development of turbo superchargerfor the Jet engines for tactical advantage at a higher altitude and were usedwith the Jet Engines in the world war II. Book 2Rolls Royce furtherbeing developing the engines on a support from the Air force playing a vitalpart by providing engines for the fighters and bombers of the allies. Book 1 Current Policies Laiddown for the R & D of the Jet EnginesThe Government of the UnitedKingdom accelerated adoption of the Jet Engines thatinspired to fly the long distances. From the early nineteenth century untiltoday it has continuously stimulated the development of engines tocommercialise this invention and maintain its sky high success.
The aviationpolicy framework in U.K. supports growthwithin framework which maintains balance between the benefits of aviation andits costs particularly looking into its contribution to climate changes andnoise. 66TheGovernment has being laying down policies since decades in order to improve theJet Engines and their impact.
The U.K. Governmentsince 2013 has funded around £3.9 billion to the R&D in Aerospace Sector. In the year 2016 the Business Ministry announcednearly £10 Million of Government Funding toLoughborough University to open access to National Centre of Excellence in GasTurbine Combustion Aerodynamics. This centre would allow the UK industry toaccess state-of art facilities which would lead to research and technologydevelopment in Gas Turbine Combustion i.
e central feature of large Jet Engines.In the year 2016 the Business Ministry further extended itscommitment by another additional £900 million for the next 10 years on aerospace R&D.As per the Business Minister Anna Soubry in a press release on the 5thFebruary 2016 ‘It’s an industry which is flying high and provides the highlyskilled jobs that are needed to grow our economy.
That’s why we have extendedour commitment to by a further £900 million over the next 10 years I.e. tillthe 2026.” showing the importance of supporting the overall aerospace research tomeet the Global demands. 16These huge amount of funding to these research centres are made inorder to research and test more Environment friendly and efficient combustiontechnologies which meet the emissions targets.
The Government has being hasbeen funding the R&D of these engines to reduce their impact on theenvironment. These Investments are continuous efforts by U.K. Government forthe development of advanced technologies to meet the internationalenvironmental performance targets. These Governmental policies have also being laiddown in order to meet the standards for global competitiveness .These policieshave also encouraged in growth of highly skilled engineers and scientists.
.18 These are the targets set by the U.K. Government so that theseresearches and developments accomplish the targets laid down by the AdvisoryCouncil for Aviation Research and Innovation in Europe ACARE which are likereducing fuel consumption, CO2 emission by 50% per passenger ,reduction of NOxemissions by 80% ,reducing perceived noise by 50% and an reducing considerableimpact on the environment because of the manufacturing, disposal of theseengines and other related aircraft products.18The rising fuel prices, the perceived externalnoise and carbon emission from the Aircrafts are of grave concern for theentire World today. These concerns not only are destroying the environment butalso encouraging early retirement of Aircrafts. The Government of the UnitedKingdom are continuously making striving effort for development of Engines thatare fuel efficient and which reduce the ongoing impact on the environment. The U.
K’s ranks second globally afterthe United States and first in the EU in the Aerospace Industry. The U.K.Government in 2014 invested around £154 millionout of which £20 million were invested in development of Engines in a projectlead by Rolls-Royce for creating lighter ,more fuel efficient aircrafts for reducingemission of carbon dioxide by 75%.20. The Governments have notonly being contributing for the Development of Jet Engines but also has beingencouraging development and upgrades of various different kinds of engines to boostthe future of the Aerospace Industry. The UK Government in 2015 backed projectsworth £100 Million which included Formula 1 expert teamed up with the JetEngine makers. These funding were contributed jointly by the Aviation industryand the Government as a part of UK’s industrial strategy through the Aerospace TechnologyInstitute (ATI).
19 The projects that received funding from the ATIfor developing Engines are follows:· £14 million for 9 partners, led by Airbus, to designimproved landing gear for future aircraft, including introducing electric taxitechnology so that engines can be switched off immediately after landing,saving fuel and reducing emissions.· Around £17 millionwere contributed for a project led by Rolls-Royce for developing new conceptsof future engines architecture that would improve environmentalperformance.19 This technologicaldevelopment has benefited the world’s economy. The Jet Engines have transformedtravel .The Wright Brothers might have invented the first Airplane but WhittlesJet Engines have made a distinguished contribution in flying millions whichcouldn’t even have being thought about around 70 years back. The Development ofJet Engines changed history worldwide, these engines not only created an impactbeyond realm of things that can fly but also made a historical mark in thefield of aviation. After the World War II these Engines were put to use for passengerplanes commercialising them.
Boeing 707 was the first Airplane that flew in1958 allowing people to travel safe distances at a speed which would have beenimpossible earlier.The jet engines revolutionizedair travel by cutting down the travelling time. The Jet technology wastransferred into Commercial Aviation sector as these engines were reliable,safer and less costly to operate and proved more profitable. The BritishOverseas Aircraft Corporation was first to introduce commercial Jetliners intoservice in 1952. Pan American, U.S in 1958 inaugurated its first long distancepassenger flight from Newyork to London creating a new era in commercialaviation.After pan American’ssuccess Airlines all over the world adopted these Aircrafts with the jetsreplacing Piston-Engines.
Commercialisation of Jets Aircrafts has benefitedeconomies worldwide. The Aviation Industry contributes around $2.7 Trillion (3.5%) of the world’s Gross DomesticProduct (GDP). The Aviation Industry services generate about 9.
9 billion directjobs and contribute $664.4billion and $761.4 billion through indirect Job activitiesaviation fuel suppliers etc. to the global GDP.
This Industry apart fromemployment generates $892.4 billion by playing an important role in the global tourismsector.As John Golley noted in his biography(Airlife, 1987): “Whittle – who had been the first man to geta turbo-jet running – had thrust Britain forward into the Jet Age and stood theaviation industry on its head.”Accordingly a study shows that the U.K.
aviation industry contributes tothe Gross Domestic Product GDP, employment as well as tourism. The U.K.
aviation sector’s turnover in the 2011 was around £53billion and generated around £18 billion of economic output. The Aviationsector in the UK employs around 220,000 workers directly and supports many ofthe others indirectly. The exports from aviation have also being profiting theeconomy and contributing to the future of aviation growth. Current scenario forDevelopment of new kinds of engines The earlier aircraftburned tremendous fuel which could not even keep them aloft for hours and theengines wore-out after a couple of uses. One of the major challenge was todevelop such engines which would provide high thrust with low fuel consumption,lesser noise and reduction of carbon emission.
11sTheincremental development has produced engines that operate for years withroutine maintenances and are lower in costs and more energy-efficient.The private sector hasalso been continuously conducting R&D on developing several kinds of enginesthat would impact less on the environment and help in cost -effective reduction.Since this sector majorly relies on Gasoline and other petroleum product itsemission has caused huge damage to the atmosphere .To save the depletingenvironment and meet the global environmental standards. The Boeing and theAirbus are working hard and have invested huge amount of resources to developnew kinds of engines and alternative ways to tackle the global environmentalissues the world has being facing today .
presently at Boeing, 75% of R&Dfunding supports greater environmental performance in their products eventuallyto reduce greenhouse gas emissions.55. Apart from Aircrafts and Engines which happened to changehistory there are a few playing critical role in world changing event like thedevelopment of engines in the upcoming efficient Aircraft like A320neo and theB737 Max which would result in at least 20% less consumption of fuels, lownoise levels and reduction of CO2 emissions. These aircrafts are the potential outcomes of these researches and rule the next generation of quieter, more energy efficient andenvironmentally friendly planes. As noted by Churchill”Get me a thousand whittle” 15If we could imaginethere would have been no Jet Engines today, would there have been any evolutionor shape to the future of the Global Aviation Industry. The accomplishments inthe field of aviation are flourishing after a dozens of years of research anddevelopment that have laid down to these foundation today. Aviation is one ofthe few big industries in the world and this remarkable disruptive technologyand numerous transformations in it that have made it resourceful and safe for aroundthree million passengers travelling everyday all over the world.
We are thebeneficiaries of the Sir Frank Whittles aviation establishment that has changedthe world today benefiting the society and the individuals with the bestpassenger experience making the world a smallerplace. …..
grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/UEET/StudentSite/engines.htmlWHAT ARE JET ENGINES para onehttps://www.thoughtco.
com/auctions/21761/lot/227/about the year of contract of IPhttps://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/aircraft-that-changed-the-world-45532020/?page=3https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/21761/lot/227/archives infohttps://www.flightglobal.
com/pdfarchive/view/1947/1947%20-%201359.htmlarchives infohttps://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/courses/ww2/projects/jet-airplanes/planes.html 11http://aerospaceengineeringblog.com/jet-the-engine-history/patent historyhttps://www.historylearningsite.
co.uk/inventions-and-discoveries-of-the-twentieth-century/the-jet-engine/how they benefitted https://www.centennialofflight.net/essay/Commercial_Aviation/Opening_of_Jet_era/Tran6.
htmcommercialisation https://aviationbenefits.org/economic-growth/value-to-the-economy/global coomercial support https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/america-by-air/online/jetage/jetage02.cfmcomhttp://www.wrightbrothers.org/History_Wing/History_of_the_Airplane/Decade_After/Decade_After_Intro/Decade_After_Intro.
gov.uk/government/news/government-boost-for-jet-engines-with-10-million-investment-for-next-generation-technology16 https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-boost-for-jet-engines-with-10-million-investment-for-next-generation-technology18Press releaseGovernment boost for jet engines with £10 million investment fornext generation technology dated Published 5 February 2016From:Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, Innovate UK, The Rt Hon Sajid Javid MP,and The Rt Hon Nicky Morgan18 https://www.gov.uk/government/news/100-million-to-propel-future-of-aerospace-industry19Published 3 February 2015 From:Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, Department for Education, UK Commission for Employment and Skills, and The Rt Hon Dr Vince Cable19 https://www.gov.
uk/government/news/nick-clegg-announces-154-million-for-aerospace-research20Published 17 July 2014 From:Deputy Prime Minister’s Office, Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, and The Rt Hon Nick Clegg 20http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20111005173654/http://www.dft.gov.uk/publications/uk-aviation-carbon-reduction-futures http://www.
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1379807/Frank-Whittle-Jet-engine-inventor-genius-shrank-globe.htmlthis article speaksabout whittles history. why he was not encouragedhttps://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/courses/ww2/projects/jet-airplanes/planes.htmlhistory http://www.boeing.com/resources/boeingdotcom/principles/environment/pdf/ecoMagazine.pdf55https://www.technologyreview.com/s/601008/the-race-for-the-ultra-efficient-jet-engine-of-the-future/55https://www.britannica.com/technology/aviation88http://www.frankwhittle.co.uk/content.php?act=viewDoc&docId=3&docFatherId=1&level=subs2http://www.neam.co.uk/JetHistory/britain.html1 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/153776/aviation-policy-framework.pdf 66 RR BOOK IS BOOK1