K. the proton activity at a given temperature. The

Elangovan (2010) meted out characteristics
of driven well water for
district Erode (India) states that spring
waterquality of sixty locations
in Erode district throughout pre-
monsoon and post monsoon seasons. spring
water samples were tested for eleven physico-chemical
parameters following the tandard strategies and
procedures. World Health Organization standards
were adopted for calculation of water quality index (WQI) by exploitation the
tactic plannedby Horton
and changed by Tiwari and

Assessment of water quality:
the subsequent parameters area unit analyzed: pH, TDS, EC, TH, COD, Sulphate, Chloride,
Alkalinity, Turbidity.

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pH: The pH (Potential
Hydrogen) of an answer refers
to its proton activity and is
expressed because the power of the reciprocal of the proton activity at a given temperature.
The permissible limit of pH in potable among half dozen.5-8.5 in keeping with Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). worth vary of pH from seven to fourteen is alkalescent, from zeroto seven is acidic and seven is neutral. The hydrogen ion concentration usually ranges zero to fourteen.

Electrical conduction: Electrical
Conductivity (EC) could be a live of the
electrical current that answer carries. it’smeasured with the assistance of international organisation Meter that measures the resistance offered by the
water between 2 platinized conductor. The instrument is standardized
with illustrious values
of electrical phenomenondiscovered with a std. KCl answer. In distinction,
the conduction of H2O is a
smaller amount than one µmhos/cm.
Electrical conduction could be a great
tool to judge the
purity of water.

Total Dissolved Solid: Solids might impact on water quality adversely in a very range of how. Total dissolved solids (TDS)
denote chiefly the assorted forms
of minerals gift in
water. The permissible worth counseled for TDS is five hundred mg/l prescribed by IS 10500
and BIS, FAO. TDS ranged from twenty five.44-89.5
ppm. TDS is directly associated with the
purity of water and also the quality
of water. Common inorganic salts that may be
found in water embody Ca, magnesium, metallic
element and atomic number 11 that area unit cations
and carbonates, nitrates, Bicarbonates,
chlorides and sulphates that area unit anions. 

Total Hardness: Hardness of water could be a live of its capability to make precipitates with soap and scales
with sureanions gift within the water.
The impact of hardness is scale
in utensils and plight system
in boilers etc. The degree of hardness of potable has
been classified in terms of the equivalent CaCO3 concentration as follows:
Soft- 0-60 mg/l, Medium- 60-120 mg/l, Hard- 120-180 mg/l, terribly hard- > a hundred and eighty mg/l.

Turbidity: Suspension of particles in water officious with
passage of sunshine is termed murkiness is
caused by a large kind of suspended materials that direct size from mixture to coarse dispersions, relying upon the degree of
turbulence. murkiness will be measured either by its impact on the transmission of sunshine that is
termed as turbiditymetry or by its impact on
the scattering of sunshine that is termed as Nephelometry. As per
IS: one0500-2012 the suitable and permissible limits area unit 1 and five NTU severally. 

Sulphate: Natural water contains sulfate ions
and most of those ions are soluble in water. several sulfate ions area unit turn
out by reaction method of their ores, they additionally gift in
industrial wastes. amount of sulfate is measured by UV photometer.
As per IS: 10500-2012 fascinating limit
for sulfate is two hundred and four hundredmg/l in permissible limit. 
Total pH: Alkalinity could be a chemical activity of water’s ability to neutralize
acid. pH is additionally a live of a water buffering capability or its ability to resist changes
in pH upon the addition of
acid or bases. pH of natural
water as a result of primarily
to the presence of weak acid salts, though sturdy bases may contribute (i.e. OH-) within theextreme setting. hydrogen
carbonate represents the live variety of pH