Large associated with clay-gypsum brick and control brick. For

Large amount of gypsum waste is generated as
a result of wastewater treatment activities during bleaching activated clay.
Due to its huge production which is 50 thousand tons per month, the disposal of
this waste has become a critical issue due to the toxic elements such as zinc,
manganese, lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel which posed high risks to the
environment and landfill is no longer an ideal disposal method. In this study,
the potential incorporation of gypsum waste into fired clay brick as an
alternative disposal method as well as providing low cost material for brick
manufacturing will be conducted and followed by life cycle assessment to
evaluate the environmental impacts of gypsum waste utilization. This research
is a beneficial solution to industries that produce waste with high heavy
metals concentration as it will provide insights on how to minimize the heavy
metals leaching potential whilst providing a new formulation of environmental
friendly building material from cradle to gate. Therefore, this study is in
line with the government strategic plan which is to develop the practical
method to recycle this toxic waste into fired clay brick as an alternative
disposal method for gypsum waste, improve mechanistic understanding on the
environmental impact of gypsum utilization by measuring gas emission
concentration and energy saving during fired clay brick manufacturing and
evaluating leachate analysis as well as the properties of the end product and evaluate
life cycle assessment from “cradle to gate” by identifying and addressing key
parameter of environmental impacts associated with clay-gypsum brick and
control brick. For that reason, the main objectives of this research are 1) To indentify the characteristic of gypsum waste and formulate the optimum
ratio for clay soil-gypsum in manufacturing fired clay brick. 2) To analyze
physical and mechanical properties of fired clay brick by incorporating
different percentages of gypsum. 3) To investigate the heavy metals leaching
behaviour and minimize contamination from gypsum incorporated into fired clay
brick. 4) To determine the possible levels of gas emissions from clay-gypsum
brick duirng firing stage and its energy consumption. 5) To evaluate the
environmental impact of fired clay brick incorporation with gypsum by
conducting life cycle assessment.