Learning at different levels is recommended so as to

Learning is the result of connection between a stimuli and the response to it meaning when a stimulus has been followed by a specific response, it inclines to be accompanied by that response on the next occurrence. Moreover, passage of time is not the reason why people forget things, but the intervention.


This theory proposes that:

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?           For conditioning to be created, the subject actively responds.


?           Because learning needs the conditioning of specific developments, guideline must comprehensively present tasks.


?           Being exposed to a wide range of stimulus at different levels is recommended so as to create overall response.


?           The final response will be accompanied with the stimulus in the learning process; therefore, it should be proper.


Guthrie argued that, in contiguity hypothesis, reinforcements such as rewards or penalties do not affect learning as they happen after the connection between stimulus and response is established. As sales promotions are considered as a means to reward their customers, contiguity theory will not be further deliberated1.


Classical Conditioning


Classical conditioning is also known as Pavlovian conditioning which was discovered accidentally during the 1890s by a Russian physiologist – Ivan Pavlov. He examined the salivation of his dog when it was being fed, and he realized that his dog would begin to salivate whenever he walked into the room, even when he was not bringing them food. Ivan Pavlov was the first type of learning of behaviorist tradition, and his theory had a profound impact on the understanding of human behavior2.


Classical conditioning is the learning process in which a natural stimulus that brought a specific reflexive response is associated with a new conditioned stimulus with a purpose that the new stimulus also triggers the same reflex3.                             

The model of the theory generally consists of stimulus and response. The unconditioned stimulus originally triggers a natural reflex called unconditioned response. The neutral stimulus is a new one that does not elicit a response. The new stimulus is constantly paired with the unconditioned stimulus until a strong association is established, and the new stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that ultimately brings about a conditioned response.