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The modern cell theory began in the 19th century and contains three concepts that highlight that all organisms are created by cells, which are the basic living unit that allow for organization and function. Lastly, that all cells are derived by previous cells, therefore indicating the future processes of mitosis and meiosis. 
Epithelial tissues allow for protection of the external and internal surfaces. Skin is an example of epithelial tissue as it prevents foreign objects to enter the body.
Diffusion is important as it allows for substances such as water, nutrients, oxygen, or carbon dioxide to be entered or exited from the organ/body. The alveoli of the lungs allows for diffusion to occur. It allows for oxygen to exit the lungs to be sent through the rest of the body and allows for carbon dioxide to enter the lungs to be diffused out through expiration.
This myth is not true as fat cells or adipose cells are a set number. More fat can be added into the cell therefore increasing its size, but further cells can not be created. Therefore, muscle loss is not converted into fat. 
The body would rather use adipose cells as you can store calories per gram. Adipose tissues not only store fat, but also release fatty acids into the bloodstream when needed by a certain organ. Therefore, due to its large capacitance, it will release more fatty acids, therefore creating a greater amount of energy as compared to muscle tissues. It will allow for greater oxidative phosphorylation rather than just glycolysis which lasts only briefly in working muscles.
Although amphibians contain large nuclei, they do not have as many red blood cells compared to a mammal. This is due to mammals having a higher metabolic rate to maintain homeostasis and body temperature. To regulate heat expenditure, there must be a higher intake of oxygen, causing a higher oxygen-carrying capacity rate. Amphibians do not require large intakes of oxygen due to being ectothermic, where their temperatures fluctuate based on the environment. Ultimately, this requires less oxygen.
Erythrocytes contain red blood cells which allow for the transportation/diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide as well as nutrients (d.). Neutrophils are phagocytic cells that ingest foreign bacteria and dead cells (c.). Lymphocytes are part of the immune system as they recognize foreign substances and destroy these cells (b.). Platelets are not whole cells but parts of the cytoplasm. They play an important role in clotting (a.). Basophils are important in regulating inflammation either responding to allergic responses or preventing unnecessary blood clots (b.). Monocytes are the largest white blood cells that are phagocytic cells ingesting foreign bacteria (c.).
Although bone and cartilage fall under the same category of connective tissue, their characteristics distinguish them into different elements. Cartilage is composed of hallow chambers and chondrocytes that produce more cartilage cells. This allows for the cells to be either sturdy or flexible due to the collage fibers. Cartilage does not receive direct blood supply. On the contrary, bones produce red blood cells, store calcium, and are calcified which allow for the sturdy and hardening feel. It does have a hallow chamber similar to the lacunae, but within this Haversian Canal, nerves and blood vessels run through the canal to communicate to the osteocytes, which are bone producing cells. The other similarity between bone and cartilage are the production cells within their content to allow for further growth of new cells. 
There are three types of muscular tissue; smooth, cardiac, and skeletal. Smooth muscle allows for contraction to occur around major organs with the human body. They are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and lack striation as opposed to skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscles are long muscle fibers that are multi nucleated. They are controlled voluntarily and allow for greater contraction and strength.  Lastly, cardiac muscle is only specific to the heart chamber. It is involuntary and contains intercalated discs that allow for communication to occur between cardiac cells for a joint contraction. 
The first slide is stratified squamous epithelium as it contains many layers that allow for protection among foreign invaders. The second image may be cardiac muscle as striations do appear within the tissue while also containing individual cells rather than a multi nucleated appearance of a skeletal muscle. The third image is adipose tissue as each cell is large while the nucleus is along the sides of the cell. The last image is elastic cartilage due the elastic fibers branching along the image with appearances of the lacunae and the chondrocytes, which are cells that produce more cartilage. 

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