Michelangelo’s full name was “Michelangelo Di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni,and at that time he was given the “Father and the master of all arts” nickname.
He was an Italian renaissance man who was born on March 6, 1475, in a Capresevillage in Italy and belonged to a bankingbusiness family that was classified lateron as minor nobility in Florence. The reason behind Michelangelo’spopularity returned to the “David”, “Pieta”, “Sistine Chapelfrescoes” including the “last Judgment” piece of arts, and otherpaintings, sculptures, poetries, and architectures.Michelangelo’s family started by having a small scale banker, buthis father Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni could not kept this business and losteverything, so they moved and lived in Florence, with a stone-cutter familythat owned marble quarry along with a small farm.
However the reasonbehind their movement was first Lodovico was positioned in Florence governmentand second due to his wife Francesca diNeri del Miniato di Siena illness, thatpassed away when Michelangelo had reached six years old. During Michelangelo’s childhood he was interestedin studying arts but his father was against studying arts, so he sent him to school to study grammar which is not of Michelangelo’s maininterests. By age thirteen his father realized and was convinced thatMichelangelo was so talented and interested in art more than in grammar, so he supportedhim and allow him to go with his school friend Francesco Granacci where he wasintroduced to a fresco (painting on wet plaster)called Domenico Ghirlandaio that helped him in learning how to paint to become afterthat an apprentices in other words became personwho was taught by a skilled painter. In Florence, Michelangelo’s talentedpaintings drew the attention of Florence’s citizen and also the attention of Lorenzo de’ Medici that sent to Michelangelo aninvitation to reside in Medici home where the Lorenzo de’ Medici knownas the Magnificent, ruler of Florence wasinterested by his work.
Michelangelo resides in the Medici house for approximately threeyears where he studied the classical sculptures bythe help of the bronze sculptor Bertoldo Di Giovanni that was Medici’s familyfriend and the keeper of the Medici collections of ancient Roman sculptures in the palace gardens. In addition he also learned humanists,philosophy, and politics butunfortunately he didn’t want to follow Bertoldo Di Giovanni in any ofhis sculptures. Michelangelo was also interested in studying the anatomy of deadbodies so he got the approval from the Catholic Church to use dead human bodiesin which it helped him in adding emotional and natural beauty to his own sculpturessuch as “Madonna Seated on a Step” sculptures.In 1495, Michelangelo decided to return back toFlorence from Bologna (north Italy) after the death of the Magnificent Lorenzo de’ Medici tobegin working as a sculpture after his success in modeling his master piece “thecupid sculpture” that shows the real aging of the statue.In Rome, Michelangelo’s work drew the attentionof the cardinals so they invited him to live, work and become an artist therefor his rest of his life. But unfortunately he did not stay in Rome since the anotherCardinal called Jean Bilhères de Lagraulas who was the representative of the FrenchKing Charles VIII was sent in a mission to ask the pope about the statue “Pietà”which is a statue that represents Virgin Mary holding in her arms her dead son.By age twenty five he was characterized by his ability to finish his work of 6feet wide in less than one year. Until now “Pieta” has been moved five timesand now is settled in the prominence St.
Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City.In 1501-1504, “David” was his second masterpiece sculpture that was created after hisreturn to Florence (in 1501) to continue to work on David’s sculpture (of morethan seventeen feet tall) that was kept for forty years unfinished in the city.David’s sculpture is a marble statue of a standing male nude (Biblical heroDavid), in which it shows the strength of humanity, expression, and showed alsothe emotional strength, it was considered as the favored subject in art and thesymbol of the Florence city. “David”sculpture was placed in a public square outside the Palazzo della Signoria.In 1504,Michelangelo started to work on the cartoon of a huge fresco that should representthe battle of Cascina an incident in Pisan in the Council Hall of the newFlorentine Republic. Then Michelangelo was notified in 1508 by the Pope JuliusII that he should repaint and sculpt a huge grave so he started working on itbut what makes him left Rome was the inability of the pope to fund his work dueto military disputes that makes him shift his duties.
At the same year, Michelangelo was recalled toreturn to Rome to switch towards paintings instead of sculpture to handle a newpainting project called the Sistine Chapel; this project shows twelve apostles(seven prophet and five sibyls) on the borders and on the center of ceiling (sixtyfive foot) of the Vatican along with scenes from Genesis. Then this project hasbeen changed to draw more than three hundred figures on the ceiling of thesacred space instead of drawing 12 apostles as previously planned, and wasfinished on October 31, 1512. The most emotional painting found in the Sistinechapel ceiling is “The creation of Adam” in which it is a fresco painting that showsthe stretching between the God and Adam hands toward each other. This part ofthe Sistine Chapel’s, has been famous like the Mona-Lisa masterpiece that wasdrawn by Leonardo da Vinci.
Michelangelo after that started to dosculptures for tombs of Julius II; one ofthem was for the prophets Moses. Moses are sculptures that have horns on thehead which is due to the biblical translations of the “rays of the light” tobecome “horns”, in other word it was due to an error in translating the biblein Italy. He also made two sculptures but is not in use due to it was of wrongdesign. So this sculpture was given as a gift to his family after he become oldand ill person and now these sculptures are found in the Louvre.In 1513,Michelangelo was called by the Pope Leo X son of the Lorenzo Medici to work forhim and helped him in controlling Florence.
He was employed to do projectslinked to glory and done by the Medici family. In San Lorenzo, Michelangelomoved from sculptures to architectural design along with remodeling smallproject at Medici castle and large projects at the parish church, he alsoworked on projects for cardinals to make new chapel attached to the church andgiven for the graves of the Medici family, but this project was notsuccessfully done even he worked so hard on the marble interior design and onthe graves figures that is of different shapes and details. In addition Michelangelotried to show by his work that he is not a traditional artist of classicalforms of designs and buildings, but he showed the unexpected designs ofdifferent proportions and thicknesses of the windows.Michelangelo masterpieces other than Moses are”The Last Judgment” (painting), Day, Night, Dawn and Dusk (sculptures). The Dawnand the Dusk were both marble sculptures done during the Italian renaissance andwas executed from the Medici chapel in Florence. The Dawn sculpture was foundon the tomb of the Lorenzo de Medici that was referredto as a virginal figure, whereas the Dusk was found on the tomb of the Lorenzo IIde Medici in the San Lorenzo in Florence. However both the Day and the Dusk sculptures show thefemale figures of tall, slim body shape along with small foot that were consideredat that time as the source of beauty. The day sculptureimplies for inner fire.
According to Michelangelo these types where never found on gravesbefore which implies to the death at the end of everything.These fourstatues get the attention more than the statues of the two Medici. Madonna wascarved at the center of the side wall between the two saints. However on theentrance door of the church he made two statuses which represent two young soldierswhere their heads are turned into different degrees, focusing at the corner ofthe chapel. In Florence alllibraries were settled in the monastery which was like a tradition to befollowed there.
Laurentian Library was designed in the same year of thesculptures where it received a lot of books especially the books that wereneeded by the Poe Leo. It was located next to San Lorenzo’s Church, and was built on a new third floor connected to astaircase with an entrance lobby of the second floor. But as Michelangelo wasknown with his difference in his arts, not following the traditional ways, sohe was not the one who designed Ricetto (stair hall), instead he designed it inthe opposite way for example the columns in the traditional way should be placedin front of the wall plane but Michelangelo decided to place them behind thewall plane. When itcomes to designing library rooms, Michelangelo did not use his emotions or evenhis imagination instead he used the traditional style, by placing a rows ofdesks of the same position of the windows with a little bit of decorations onthe floor and on the ceiling, which is in that case the reason behind thepresence of small and short library room decorations and styles. The door thatis found at the opposite end of the room across the stairway was supposedaccording to Michelangelo to be a triangular room but Michelangelo was not ableto continue as he planned to.In 1531,at age sixty years old Michelangelo started to worry about his age and deathafter his father and favorite brother death.
He started to write an emotionalletters to Tommaso Cavalieri, that he was a young talented aristocrat man. Theinterpretation of those emotional letters where divided into either homosexualletters or interpreted as it was impossible to a guy in his age to have anyhomosexual relation. After that Michelangelo worked in the Roman civic affairs.In 1534,Michelangelo wished to return to Florence from Rome to continue the unfinished work;but instead he kept in Rome for his rest of his life working on many differentprojects. In that day of his movement he wrote a lot of letters to his familythat stayed in Florence where most of the letters where plans, his nephew’swedding and informing his nephew how to protect the family name of his family.However some of his letters showed that he was searching for surrogate son andall of these letters were kept in a safe place in Florence.Michelangeloat that time did not stop on just painting and making sculptures, he alsostarted to write some poetry some of which were short poems and ended up to beviewed as unprofessional poetry.
But his unprofessionalism didn’t prevent himto restart again and learn how to be a professional poet so he started toexpress his own emotions through writing poets without stopping to reach for todayup to three hundred poems; seventy five of them were written in sonnets style offourteen not complicated lines, and of numerous rhyme schemes then adhered afterthat to write in a thematic organization. The sonnets were very straightreligious announcement suggesting prayers.However in Renaissance period, ninety five poems of Michelangelo were done in madrigalsstyle that is defined as part of song for different voices while the rest ofthe poems were kept unfinished.TheSonnets poems where easily spread in countries that speaks English, and also translatedinto English in the Victorian period whereas for the madrigal style poems were uncommonin English poetry writings. Those poems were totally talking about thelifestyle and the culture of the Petrarch’s love poems where it express thelove feeling and helps human in facing their difficulties to rise to heavens.
However other poem was talking about philosophy that is based on Neoplatonism thatwas learned in Lorenzo Di Medici court when he was a boy. The last two sculptures of Michelangelo represent the dead Christthat express sadness, and none of them were finished. These two sculptures weredone by him and only for him.
Joseph of Arimathea was a large sculpture that wasan example of uncompleted self-image done for his grave because he destroyedthe work since one of the sculptures wasn’t like he was planned to.In 1541,Michelangelo returned to paint for the new pope Paul III using the frescotechnique. In which he draws on the end wall of the Sistine Chapel in theVatican City a painting called “The Last Judgment”. This wall was the favoredwall in the church in the middle age but was considered as inappropriatepainting to be placed in a holy place and was recalled to destroy the largest it.Michelangelo used different colors on the wall than the colors found on theceiling of the church because Pope Paul III decided to change the wall becausehe saw that it was disliked by everyone, so the wall was painted with abrownish flesh tones against the blue sky found on the ceiling.
In the centerof the “Last Judgment” painting, Jesus was standing as a judge, lifting his rightarm to save people and send them to heaven, without lifting his left hand forpeople to fell in hell and curse them. He was surrounded by prophets, saints,monks, and Martyrs and at the bottom of the painting there were skeletons arisingfrom their graves.Theartist Luca Signorelli was the source of inspiration for Michelangelo, were he addedon the right of the painting the Charon ferries souls across the Styx river,however this painting showed a unified scene, filled with strong expression especiallythe expression of the judged people ,and was found without any source of errorthat separates the painting.When Michelangelo was getting older he was lessinvolved with sculpture, painting, and poetry, and more involved witharchitecture. He preferred to work in an area that require less physicalactivity, and wanted to design an impressive statue for the modern Rome thatwas announced to the city as the center of the architect.
One of the mostfamous architecture was the Capitoline Square and the roof of St. Peter’s thatare the most remarkable images can be seen in the city. But unfortunately wasunable to finish one of them due to his death, but both of them after his deathwere continued and finished but not like as he planned to.In the sixteen century during the Roman period and before his death,Michelangelo was able to rebuild the old city hall of small Capitoline Hill thatwas the center of the lay town government and was ruled by the Popes. He rebuildsone side of the square and then added two new adjacent ones. Both of them weresimilar in shape, design and adjacent to each other. At the left side of thesquare there was an opening door that enabled people to enter their throughclimbing a long flight stairs and was able in the center of the square also todesign a dynamic floor in an oval pattern which frames the emperor MarcusAurelius status.
St. Peter’s Basilica was given to Donato Bramante that served asprincipal planner in rebuildingthe city St. Peter’s Basilica. St.Peter’s Basilica was themost famous work of architecture is the east end and dome of Michelangelo. The Catholic Church called the 74 years oldretired painter Michelangelo to work on it.
He worked most of his time till death,but was unable to continue the same design and architect that the otherdesigners had started with, so he returned to his previous plans, were he didfour equal cross arms rather than making traditional Latin cross, also he wasagainst the repetition of small decorations that were done by the previousarchitectures, it was enclosed through large semicircular sections on the foursides of the wall, and was of similar spaces compared to the dome.He concentrated in most of his works on the curving wall that islocated behind the altar along with making small difference between the colossaland smaller supports adjacent to each other in a horizontal rhythm, focused onthe same direction of the wall producing an architecture huge dynamic scale. A classical designed was done by setting a columned walkway at thebottom of the dome, having their heads attached to the dome, and by that thecolumn will have an impact on supporting the downward with a straight aspect thatsolves the issue of the view between the dome and the horizontal downwardstructure of the building.In Rome Michelangelo also worked on plenty of smaller buildingprojects where he finished the main residence of Pope Paul III in the PalazzoFarnese and the city gate Porta Pia of imaginarydesigns but these projects were also rebuild opposite to the plan of Michelangelo.Pauline Chapelwas the last frescoes paintings of Michelangelo that was painted and kept inthe Vatican and was the only one that prevented public people to see it, whilethe other frescoes paintings were not specific and thus they are found on the wallsand allowed to be observed by the public people.Michelangelo paintings were similar in themes, styles of otherartists. When he went to Rome during 1542-1550 he admired the Titian were heused frescoes art for this type of painting project.
Then in 2004 Michelangelodraw Crucifixion of Saint Peter which is a painting that represent himselfwhere he was on a horseman wearing a blue turban. Michelangelo died after a short illness in1564 at 88, surviving far past the usual life expectancy of the era andMichelangelo is buried, at the Basilica di Santa Croce.