Milk is composed of several different types of proteins; however, the most concentrated group of proteins in milk is casein protein. All the other proteins in milk are classified as “whey proteins”. The major “whey proteins” in whole milk from cows are alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin proteins (Hurley). These major proteins in milk are synthesized in the epithelial cells located in the mammary glands of mammals (in this case, the female cow’s mammary glands) (BBC). Caseins consist of the appropriate amino acids that are important for growth and development within the body. Those amino acids within the caseins are arginine, glycine, serine, proline, cysteine, and tyrosine. All of these amino acids are essential to growth and development in mammals (BBC). The presence of Caseins is the reason why cow milk is an important aspect of the human diet.The biuret A & B test shows the concentration of proteins when mixed with a liquid solution. The biuret solution is a mixture of NaOH and CuSO4 that has a initial color of light blue; when introduced to proteins, the NaOH (which is a cyan blue color) and CuSO4 solution turned into a violet color (SF Gate). This is because the reagent has copper ions that have a charge of +2, and when protein is present, the charge reduces to +1 causing the color of the reagent to change from cyan blue to violet (Bank).A colorimeter measures how much light is able to pass through with little to none distortion of light so that other objects can be clearly seen. In the colorimeter, light blue is supposedly more transparent than purple. This is because purple absorbs many different colored lights than blue. This method is practical for this experiment as the difference in absorbance and transparency of the diluted milk and Biurets A & B reagent between the different temperature trails precisely.Depending on the temperature, the rate of reaction in the milk protein enzymes could either increase or decrease. The enzyme protease catalyzes proteins such as Caseins and “whey proteins” in milk into amino acids. Protease catalyzes proteins mostly in the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine. The optimum temperature for enzymes to carry out their functions is at 37 degrees centigrade. As the temperature increases, the enzyme activity increases until reaching 60 degrees centigrade where the enzymes begin to become denatured. This is because as temperature rises in an environment, the movement of enzyme molecules and its substrate molecules increases. As the movement of enzymes increases, more collisions between enzymes and substrates occur until reaching a certain temperature and begins to decline rapidly as the active sites denatures.
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