Motivation This includes the desire to earn more money,

Motivation
is the driving force within individuals that affects direction, intensity and
persistence of voluntary behaviour (Bratton et al 2007). Each individual has a
different factor that affects the way they accomplish goals. This includes the
desire to earn more money, the recognition and job satisfaction. According to
Yoon (2018) as the workplace environment changes and evolves over time,
companies have to take this in account and react by making beneficial changes. This
is where management have to take control and create a better environment for
employees that encourages them to do well. The more efficiently and harder they
work, Neff (2002:385) states that employees know that they are critical to the
success of the organization. This stems from a psychological view as employees
have to make the decision to put in the work in order to reap the rewards.
However, we have to take into account how vital both roles, managerial and as
an employee are in the process of motivation. There are many theories of
motivation that explain why motivation is important. In this essay I will be
outlining the implications, benefits and limitations of goal setting as a
process theory of motivation.

Introduced
in the late 1960’s, goal setting theory was developed by Dr Erwin Locke. He
argued that when employees have a clear goal they have to reach and the right
feedback, that employees are better equipped to work and hit their goals. A
goal is an object of an individual’s ambition and desired results. This idea of
having a goal can also mean achieving a quota, a deadline or a budget (Locke et
al ,1981). In order to motivate employees, goal setting is characterized as the
factor that makes us work harder with added rewards in the work place (Locke
and lantham,2013). For this to happen, goals need to be challenging, achievable
and clear in order for employees to commit to these goals. As well as this, the
feedback employees receive from their managers is important in order to keep
them motivated. ‘satisfied employees improve the bottom line'(Neff 2002 :385).
The more feedback between managers and employees provides this idea of a
rapport in which an individual receives encouragement to develop further. The
process of performance feedback and improvement targets can itself be a strong
motivator (Locke and Lantham,1990). Locke declares this idea of “competition”.
He argues that goals are ‘the standard by which one judges one’s adequacy or
success’. This is the idea that every individual has a goal but the excitement
comes from having a goal that is higher than everyone else’s. Locke argues that
through his competition, employees are highly motivated to achieve these goals
in return for recognition and praise. This in turn means that employees are
“more driven to work harder within an organisation” (Knights and Wilmott, 2007:54).
Kahneman, (1973) support this claim that the more motivated an individual is,
the effort they put in will reflect that.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Goal
setting in place means that managers and employees should have the required
level of engagement in order to keep preforming (Locke, 1986). For example, of
this would be Runners, who set their goals at an extremely high level which
combined with a high mental level of achievement means that their potential
increases. In business the manger is in charge of making sure that their
employees are well taken care of and motivated in order to achieve targets.
They can use money and a sense of achievement as ways to keep them motivated. Higher
incentive, performance rates improve by 30 percent. (Locke et al, 1981)

The
most vital implication of goal setting is taking the effects this theory has
and considering the positive and negative aspects of the theory in place. When
developing the idea of goal setting, Locke found that there were four main
factors that influenced if a person was to be motivated. Attention, effort, strategy
and perseverance (Tubbs and Ekeberg,1991). Locke (1968) claimed that the harder
a individuals goals are, the better they would perform to achieve said goals. Charles
Morgan the head of Morgan Motor company was asked the secret to a happy work
force he said “we drive people hard but this is because we know they enjoy the
pressure”. He argued that by giving employees incentives like time off and
having customers come in while their cars are being made meant that the
employees felt a sense of pride when being recognised for their hard work. Consequently,
this led to satisfaction in the work place (Buchanan and Huczynski,2013). The benefits
to using the goal setting theory on one hand is that with the use of goals,
there is a clearer outlook on what needs to be done. Individuals are more
likely to want to strive to accomplish them which plays a big role in their sense
of achievement that keeps them motivated. As well as this, with constant
feedback from mangers, Companies can build up rapports with their employees
through managers who are in place to be the middle man in between.

Like
any theory however, Goal setting has its pitfalls, in 2010 Apple faced a huge
backlash in Hong Kong, after a number of workers killed themselves. This was
after the company admitted to paying insufficient attention to workers. The
workers were met with low wages, alienation and no motivation to continue
working (The Telegraph). This led to bad press for the company and a short fall
in production (The Economist, 2010). However, this theory has been tested in situations
where the short term targets are in place rather than long term targets which
change over time. This brings the theory into question, as you cannot clearly
measure goals especially in professional work while also bringing up the point
that goal setting only applies to an individual in a business rather than working
together and the importance of team work (Buchanan and Huczynski,2013).  Locke et al, (1981) suggests that certain
factors have to be put in place by managers. One way to improve this would be
the inclusion of S.M.A.R.T. Goals that are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant
and time based.  Specific goals help
employees know what they are doing. Measurable goals that you can help to track
progress and targets. Attainable goals that are realistic and manageable. Results
are based on a goal that fits to the business. Lastly Time based goals that you
can use to identify the goal and how long it will last.

In conclusion,
motivation plays a very important part in the work place. Buchanan and
Huczynski (2013) state that a workforce that is demotivated can lead to disastrous
results. Goal setting plays a very important part in motivating people. However,
if not properly managed can have the opposite effect.  I this essay I have attempted to explain the
positive and negatives that goal setting has on the work force. As well as this
I have found that goal setting is a handy tool in motivating.