Mushrooms (Wang and Ng 2006a) and from P. ostreatus

Mushrooms produce many bioactive
proteins and peptides, primarily including lectins, which have not enzymatic
activity. Mushrooms also produce bioactive proteins, which possess enzymatic
activity such as fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs), ribosome-inactivating
proteins (RIPs), and laccases. Chu et al. (2005) isolated an antifungal peptide
(pleurostrin) (7 kDa) from P. ostreatus,
which exhibited antifungal activity. Wang et al. (2007) isolated a peptide
(SU2) (4.5 kDa) from Russula paludosa,
which showed antiviral properties. Ngai et al. (2005)
isolated an antifungal peptide (agrocybin) (9 kDa) from fresh fruiting bodies
of the mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea.
Cordymin, a low molecular weight peptide (10,906 Da), has been purified from Cordyceps sinensis (a highly prized
edible fungus found in the mountains of Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet) (Wang et
al. 2012; Qian et al. 2011) and from Cordyceps
militaris (Wong et al. 2011). This peptide showed anti-inflammatory
activity. Lectins are nonimmune proteins or glycoproteins that bind
specifically to fungal cell wall carbohydrates and have ability to cell
agglutination. Liu et al. (2006) isolated a xylose-specific lectin (28.8 kDa)
from fresh fruiting bodies of Xylaria
hypoxylon. It showed potent antimitogenic and antitumor activities. It has
been reported that lectins were isolated from Pholiota adiposa and from H.
erinaceum (16 and 51 kDa, respectively), which exhibited antiviral and
antitumor activities (Zhang et al. 2009; Lin et al. 2010). Zhang et al. (2010a)
isolated a lectin (32 kDa) from Russula
lepida, which exhibited antitumor activity. Ribosome-inactivating proteins
(RIPs) are enzymes that inactivate ribosomes by eliminating adenosine residues
from rRNA. It has been reported that a ribosome-inactivating protein (9 kDa)
(marmorin) was isolated from Hypsizigus marmoreus
and showed antitumor activity (Wong et al. 2008). On the other hand, laccases
are phenol oxidases widely diffused in basidiomycete and ascomycete fungi.
These fungi use laccases to degrade lignocellulosic substrates. However, laccases
with antiviral activity have been isolated from Pleurotus eryngii (Wang and Ng 2006a) and from P. ostreatus (El Fakharany et al. 2010). Zhang et al. (2010b)
purified a laccase from Clitocybe maxima,
which also showed antitumor activity. Some proteins targeting immune cells
known as fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) are a new group bioactive
proteins also isolated from mushroom. Kino et al. (1989) isolated ling zhi-8
(LZ-8), an immunomodulatory protein from G.
lucidum. FIPs have been isolated from the mushrooms F. velutipes (Fip-fve)
(Ko et al. 1995), Ganoderma tsugae
(Fip-gts) (Lin et al. 1997), and
Volvariella volvacea (Fip-vvo) (Hsu
et al. 1997). It has been reported the potential application of Fip-fve for
tumor immunotherapy (Ding et al. 2009; Chang and Sheu 2006; Chang et al. 2010).
A novel immunomodulatory glycoprotein ACA (27 kDa) was purified from Antrodia camphorata (Sheu et al. 2009).
Lin et al. (2010) isolated an immunomo dulatory prote in GM I from Ganoderma microsporum, which showed antimetastasis
activity. Du et al. (2007) purified a water-soluble Se-containing protein
Se-GL-P (36 kDa) from the Se-enriched G.
lucidum, which exhibited antitumor activity. The immunomodulatory activity
of the isolated protein fractions
and polysaccharide fractions from the mushrooms A. blazei, C. comatus, F. velutipes, G. lucidum, G. frondosa, L. edodes, P. ostreatus and V. volvacea has been reported (Jeurink
et al. 2008). Maiti et al. (2008) examined the antiproliferative and immunomodulatory
activities of a protein fraction, named Cibacron blue affinity eluted protein
(CBAEP), which was isolated from Astraeus
hygrometricus, Termitomyces clypeatus, Pleurotus florida, Calocybe indica
and V. volvacea. A glycoprotein (PCP-3A) was purified from Pleurotus citrinopileatus, which
showed antitumor activity (Chen et al. 2009). Kodama et al. (2002) isolated a
low molecular weight protein fraction from G.
frondosa, which showed antitumor activity. Ngai and Ng (2008) isolated a
novel and potent antifungal protein lentin (27.5 kDa) from the fruiting bodies
of L. edodes. Guo et al. (2005) also isolated an antifungal protein
(trichogin) from Tricholoma giganteum. Wang and Ng (2006b) isolated
an antifungal protein (15 kDa) (ganodermin) from G. lucidum. Zheng et al. (2010b)
isolated a novel antibacterial protein (44 kDa) from dried fruiting bodies of Clitocybe sinopica.