Mushrooms (Wang and Ng 2006a) and from P. ostreatus

Mushrooms produce many bioactiveproteins and peptides, primarily including lectins, which have not enzymaticactivity. Mushrooms also produce bioactive proteins, which possess enzymaticactivity such as fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs), ribosome-inactivatingproteins (RIPs), and laccases. Chu et al.

(2005) isolated an antifungal peptide(pleurostrin) (7 kDa) from P. ostreatus,which exhibited antifungal activity. Wang et al. (2007) isolated a peptide(SU2) (4.5 kDa) from Russula paludosa,which showed antiviral properties. Ngai et al. (2005)isolated an antifungal peptide (agrocybin) (9 kDa) from fresh fruiting bodiesof the mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea.

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Cordymin, a low molecular weight peptide (10,906 Da), has been purified from Cordyceps sinensis (a highly prizededible fungus found in the mountains of Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet) (Wang etal. 2012; Qian et al. 2011) and from Cordycepsmilitaris (Wong et al. 2011). This peptide showed anti-inflammatoryactivity.

Lectins are nonimmune proteins or glycoproteins that bindspecifically to fungal cell wall carbohydrates and have ability to cellagglutination. Liu et al. (2006) isolated a xylose-specific lectin (28.

8 kDa)from fresh fruiting bodies of Xylariahypoxylon. It showed potent antimitogenic and antitumor activities. It hasbeen reported that lectins were isolated from Pholiota adiposa and from H.erinaceum (16 and 51 kDa, respectively), which exhibited antiviral andantitumor activities (Zhang et al. 2009; Lin et al. 2010). Zhang et al.

(2010a)isolated a lectin (32 kDa) from Russulalepida, which exhibited antitumor activity. Ribosome-inactivating proteins(RIPs) are enzymes that inactivate ribosomes by eliminating adenosine residuesfrom rRNA. It has been reported that a ribosome-inactivating protein (9 kDa)(marmorin) was isolated from Hypsizigus marmoreusand showed antitumor activity (Wong et al. 2008). On the other hand, laccasesare phenol oxidases widely diffused in basidiomycete and ascomycete fungi.These fungi use laccases to degrade lignocellulosic substrates. However, laccaseswith antiviral activity have been isolated from Pleurotus eryngii (Wang and Ng 2006a) and from P.

ostreatus (El Fakharany et al. 2010). Zhang et al. (2010b)purified a laccase from Clitocybe maxima,which also showed antitumor activity.

Some proteins targeting immune cellsknown as fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) are a new group bioactiveproteins also isolated from mushroom. Kino et al. (1989) isolated ling zhi-8(LZ-8), an immunomodulatory protein from G.lucidum. FIPs have been isolated from the mushrooms F. velutipes (Fip-fve)(Ko et al.

1995), Ganoderma tsugae(Fip-gts) (Lin et al. 1997), andVolvariella volvacea (Fip-vvo) (Hsuet al. 1997). It has been reported the potential application of Fip-fve fortumor immunotherapy (Ding et al.

2009; Chang and Sheu 2006; Chang et al. 2010).A novel immunomodulatory glycoprotein ACA (27 kDa) was purified from Antrodia camphorata (Sheu et al. 2009).Lin et al. (2010) isolated an immunomo dulatory prote in GM I from Ganoderma microsporum, which showed antimetastasisactivity. Du et al.

(2007) purified a water-soluble Se-containing proteinSe-GL-P (36 kDa) from the Se-enriched G.lucidum, which exhibited antitumor activity. The immunomodulatory activityof the isolated protein fractionsand polysaccharide fractions from the mushrooms A.

blazei, C. comatus, F. velutipes, G. lucidum, G. frondosa, L. edodes, P. ostreatus and V. volvacea has been reported (Jeurinket al.

2008). Maiti et al. (2008) examined the antiproliferative and immunomodulatoryactivities of a protein fraction, named Cibacron blue affinity eluted protein(CBAEP), which was isolated from Astraeushygrometricus, Termitomyces clypeatus, Pleurotus florida, Calocybe indicaand V. volvacea. A glycoprotein (PCP-3A) was purified from Pleurotus citrinopileatus, whichshowed antitumor activity (Chen et al.

2009). Kodama et al. (2002) isolated alow molecular weight protein fraction from G.frondosa, which showed antitumor activity.

Ngai and Ng (2008) isolated anovel and potent antifungal protein lentin (27.5 kDa) from the fruiting bodiesof L. edodes. Guo et al. (2005) also isolated an antifungal protein(trichogin) from Tricholoma giganteum. Wang and Ng (2006b) isolatedan antifungal protein (15 kDa) (ganodermin) from G.

lucidum. Zheng et al. (2010b)isolated a novel antibacterial protein (44 kDa) from dried fruiting bodies of Clitocybe sinopica.