Nitrogen ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. As ammonia becomes excessive,

Nitrogen and phosphorous are food sources foralgae (phoslock.eu). Nitrogen is not as big of a concern as phosphorus becausealgae can get nitrogen from the environment (phoslock.

eu). Phosphorous is alimiting nutrient which can stop algae from growing (phoslock.edu). Whenthere is excess phosphorus, algae can use it to help grow and sustain life (phoslock.

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eu). The growth of some more nasty algae willfight off healthier ones (phoslock.eu). Macrophytesuse up most of the phosphorus as a bundle of weeds (syngentaprofessionalproducts.com).            Nitrogenis cycled through the water as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. As ammonia becomesexcessive, bacteria called Nitrosomonas use it as a food source andchange it to nitrites (pondexperts.ca).

Nitrites are less harmful than ammonia, but if in excess, they can becomedangerous. As nitrites increase, a bacteria called Nitrobacter changesthe nitrite into nitrates which are even less dangerous (pondexperts.ca).As the Nitrobacter increase, nitrites will decrease. (pondexperts.ca).The cycle ends with nitrates. Nitrates will appear in a pond that has no plantsor algae and are not broken down by bacteria.

(pondexperts.ca). The immune systems of fish cannothandle accumulated amounts of nitrite(pondexperts.ca).

When nutrients become excessive in ponds,eutrophication occurs. “Eutrophic is the term used to describe the condition ofnutrient enrichment when aquatic plant growth becomes excessive. One of the keyconcerns of eutrophication is the impact of oxygen levels.” (Bruulsema, et al.,2011, naturespondcare.com).

Large sprouts of algae occur because of eutrophication (nature.com). Theselarge sprouts of algae can block the sunlight which can kill off algae, plants,and animals in the water (nature.

com).Predators are also affected by the blockingof sunlight because they need the light to see and catch their prey (nature.com). Afterthe algal sprouts die off, the decomposition process begins which uses up theoxygen in the water (nature.com).

The decomposition process causes anoxic and hypoxic conditions. Anoxic means thereis no oxygen present and hypoxic means there is only little oxygen and notenough of it (ozcoast.gov.

au). Hypoxic water can cause the death of animals living in thewater and can cause a specifictemperature effect (ozcoast.gov.au). This effectis where the warm water mixes with the water that has little oxygen this causesstress for the fish (wtop.com). Hypoxic water can make harmful chemicalssuch as hydrogensulfide and ammonia gas, which can harm the animals in the water(ozcoasts.

gov.au). Anoxic water can also cause the death of animals living in the water (ozcoasts.gov.au).              Anaerobic and aerobic bacteria can live in water. Anaerobic bacteria does notneed oxygen. They use chemicals from the water to survive instead (www.

dunnfishfarm.com).The decomposing process of anaerobic bacteria occurs without containing oxygen.This makes the process slow (www.dunnfishfarm.com). Because the process is slow,it does not fully complete the process which makes the chemicals sulfur dioxideand sulfuric acid (www.

dunnfishfarm.com). The rotten egg smell iscaused by these chemicals (www.

dunnfishfarm.com). Aerobic bacteria need oxygenbecause they use it as energy to make food (study.

com).  Because there is oxygen involved,the decomposing process is faster, but it still makes a chemical that makes therotten egg smell. The chemical is carbon dioxide. Both kinds of bacteria use upthe decomposed junk that is floating in the water and put it back into thewater in a way that animals living in the water can now use themselves (extension.psu.edu).

When large sprouts of algae die, bacteria have to use up oxygen on the water inorder to decompose the organic matter (Bruulsema, et al., 2011, naturespondcare.com).This causes less oxygen on the water which of course will harm animals whodepend on oxygen to survive.

Many types of fish and insects do not survive wellwithout oxygen (Bruulsema, et al., 201l, naturespondcare.com).              There are many treatments to help withmaintaining water quality and nutrients. Buffer strips can help by collecting runoffwater before it flows into a body of water causing many nutrients to accumulatein the water (grit.com).A very helpful device called a pond aerator helps to keep water clean.

(solitudelakemanagement.com).The aerator keeps the accumulation of nutrients under control by flowing oxygenthroughout the water (solitudelakemanagement.com). To keep the accumulationof nutrients under control by putting a little pool connecting to the pond. Thepool helps to collect the extra nutrients and sediment before they go to thepond. (extension.psu.

edu). Certain plants can absorb nutrients and use them fortheir own gain before they enter the pond. The nutrients are good for food forthe plants and the plants help to provide a habitat for animals around the pond(www.dunnfishfarm.com).

            There are several chemicals that help to take away excessnutrients, especially phosphorous. Phoslock is a granule that you can add to apond to make the phosphorous go to the bottom which makes it impossible forother plants and animals to take in (solitudelakemanagement.com). Phoslock are littlepieces of clay and lanthanum. Phoslock will take away algae which in turn helpsrevive other phytoplankton that are beneficial to the pond (phoslock.eu). Onething that can decrease phosphorous and maintain how much is put into the waterare aluminum salts.

These salts will still do their job in ponds even thoughthe pH is a little off (solitudelakemanagement.com). Lanthanum works byturning phosphate into a more usable and better form for ponds calledrabdophane. Lanthanum can be used in different water conditions. It can work inwater that has a deficiency in oxygen. (solitudelakemanagement.com).Alum is a beneficial solution because it binds to particles usually in water.

Thisclears the water of any substances or particles that will make the water dirty (syngentaprofessionalproducts.com).Some common particles in water are the sediment and soil (scienceclarifies.com).Barraclear is a product that contains a chemical called Alum, a type of clay,and a barrier to protect from the pH (www.dunnfishfarm.

com). A mechanical way to removenutrients is by performing a process called dredging. You do this by taking outall of the grime and filth from the pond (www.dunnfishfarm.com).

In order todredge the pond, you must empty it first. After doing that, you can then dig upthe silt and muck at the bottom by using a shovel or via another means ofdigging. You can finally put fresh water back into the pond (livingthecountrylife.com).

There is another type of dredging which is just another way of regular dredgingthat is used so that you do not have to empty out the pond before you startdigging. You can dig up the muck with the water still in the pond. (livingthecountrylife.com).This could be a bad or a good thing because it’s nice to empty the pond andthen put fresh water back into it, but at the same time it is more work and itwould be a longer process. Aerating devices are a great benefit forponds. Aerating devices spread oxygen through the water.

This helps with thedecomposing of aerobic organisms who need to use enough oxygen to carry out theprocess (www.dunnfishfarm.com). Any unpleasant smells that come from murky anddirty water can be prevented by the oxygen that spreads from these devices bymaking currents in the water (www.dunnfishfarm.com).

Theaeration device causes the currents from the wind (www.dunnfishfarm.com).

Floating islands are large floating plantsthat serve many purposes. Floating islands can be made out of materials such asplastic and of course plants (floatingislandsinternational.com). The mainpurposes floating islands serve are as follows: “purifying water, providingmore habitat for water and terrestrial plants and animals, shoreline erosionprotection, and landscape features” (ascelibrary.org). Floating islands consist of largeroots that go down to the depths of the waters and these roots have plenty ofroom for microbes to live on them (midwestfloatingisland.com).

These microbes maintainexcessive nutrients by using them for their own gain as a source of food alongwith cleaning the water (midwestfloatingisland.com). Pollutants which producechemicals such as phosphorous, and the accumulation of algae are big contendersfor making ponds dirty so the insertion of microbes helps to reduce both ofthose things since they compete with algae for food sources and also use upnutrients in the water (midwestfloatingisland.com).

Not only are theirmicrobes helping, but there are also plants that can be put on floating islandsthat help to reduce excess nutrients by sifting the nutrients so that they canbe used up by the plants (nualgiponds.com). “Wet”artificial floating islands have roots that go down into the water while thedry ones do not (acelibrary.org).The “wet” artificial floating islands are most commonly used (ascelibrary.org).The “dry” artificial floating islands, however, are not used very often. Theway that these are built is by using a sheet of concrete and putting it on afloating device that can withhold the weight of the concrete (ascelibrary.

org) “Wet” artificial floating islands can be made out offloatation devices like small buoys or mats connected by ropes (ascelibrary.org).There are many other ways to make artificial floating island frames such aswood, steel, plastic, fiber, and concrete which was mentioned above (ascelibrary.org).Plants that surround ponds along with animalsthat are found near water are great for and prefer “wet” artificial floatingislands considering they are moist, but are also small which can be a downfall(ascelibrary.

org). It is the opposite for “dry” artificial floating islands consideringthey are not wet or moist enough for animals and plants that need water as anecessity (ascelibrary.org).A study showed the difference between normal cells of the water without artificialfloating islands and cells of artificial floating islands. The study showedthat an increase in density of algae was more prevalent in the normal cellscompared to the cells of artificial floating islands and the artificialfloating islands helped with getting rid of or at least slowing down thenutrient accumulation in the water column as well (ascelibrary.org).

  Floating islands can bring pizazz to yourpond. There are plants and other objects that are perfect for any specifichabitat for animals (midwestfloatingisland.com). There are more objectsthat you can place onto a floating island to give it even more pizazz and givea temporary home for animals (midwestfloatingisland.com). Little trees that canprovide branches or large sticks can be great for birds to perch and lay eggson (midwestfloatingisland.

com).Rocks both big and small are useful because they have crevices that are greatfor tiny animals to take refuge in (midwestfloatingisland.com).

A little areaof sand could even be added to provide a place for turtles to sunbathe and takea break from the water (midwestfloatingisalnd.com). Although the ideas above are important decisionsto make for a floating island, deciding which plants to place is a huge dealwhen it comes to floating islands. “Water irises, aquatic forget-me-nots,papyrus, arrowheads, and pickerel rush” are other great plants for floatingislands that give it the beauty that it needs (floatingislandswest.com).Plants grown natively are also a great option and are probably more easilyaccessed (floatingislandswest.com).

Like it was mentioned earlier, plants are a huge deal for floating islandssince it gives the island beauty and character along with the very importantaspect of providing temporary shelters for animals. With this aspect, floatingislands can bring different species of animals together(midwestfloatingisland.com).

The roots that hang down from floating islands notonly are homes to microbes, but also have the purpose of protection and foodfrom the microbes for animals living in the water (midwestfloatingisland.com).Floating islands can be built to havedifferent objects and plants on it that are perfect for animals and birds thatneed to get away from predators on the land that cannot get to them when theyare in the middle of the water (midwestfloatingisland.com).Bigger plants on the islands have the purpose of protecting baby birds or othersmall animals from large birds that would not be able to see them as they are flyingoverhead due to the large plants covering them (midwestfloatingisland.com).

This way, birds especially can lay eggs and have their young hatch without anyworries of them being eaten (midwestflaotingisland.com). The plants and otherobjects on floating islands make for great rest stops while birds are migratingand need a break from all of the flying that obviously takes a toll on them andtheir wings (midwestfloatingisland.com).Floating islands give all kinds of bugs achance to live and make homes because of the plants and flowers that provide aplace for them to find food and a place to lay their offspring (midwestfloatingisland.com).All of these bugs are necessary to help feed the birds and other small animalson the island (midwestfloatingisland.com).

Not only does the island help outthe bugs, but pollinating bugs that accumulate on floating islands help theflowers on the island to spread their seeds so they can germinate so as to helptheir species to keep on growing (midwestfloatingisland.com).It is a symbiotic relationship that the islands encourage. Erosion is a big problem for bodies of waterbecause it causes shorelines to deform and fall apart. Floating islands helpshorelines to withstand erosion (brittanica.com). The first thing that causeserosion is sheet erosion (brittanica.com).

Large chunks of soil come apartbecause of not being very solid or tightly packed together because of stormsand powerful rain (brittanica.com). This causes an avalanche of these chunks ofsoil (brittanica.com).

This avalanche of water mixed with chunks of soil can be a serious event (brittanica.com).The avalanche will cause the shoreline to keep falling and losing soil whichmakes the water channel much wider and this can keep a cascade going of moreloss of soil as time goes on (study.com). Waves are the second cause of erosion (sites.google.com).

Waves usually get their energy from wind, especially if there is a lot of wind.The stronger the wind, the bigger the waves get (sites.google.com).This is why beaches have regulations for swimming when wind or storms arepresent or on the way because wind makes waves bigger and have a strongerforce.

Waves usually carry soil and other material from the bottom of the wateras they move across it which makes the waves rougher so when they crash intothe shore, the shore will start to fall apart. This is what causes the erosionprocess (sites.google.com).

Itis a floating island’s job to control the erosion process by controlling thesize of the waves and how much energy they are producing and by also ensuringthat their roots will help the shore to stay firm and not fall apart so easily(canadianpond.ca). This will help to keep the soil and other materials at thebottom of the water to stay compacted together (canadianpond.ca). There is a difference between floatingislands and artificially constructed islands.

Floating islands contain microbesthat grow on the roots of the floating island (scholarworks.montana.edu).These are considered to be aquiculture plants because they grow without soiland just use nutrients that their roots take in from the water that surroundsthem (scholarworks.montana.edu).

The artificial floating islands have roots, but theirs do not grow by justhanging in the water collecting nutrients from it. Their roots grow into the soiland sediment at the bottom (scholarworks.montana.edu).

This means that theyaren’t able to take in nutrients from the water, but only from the soil andsediment at the bottom (scholarworks.montana.edu).Artificially made floating islands can be putjust about anywhere where there is water draining into it which can be a goodthing considering how well they do at minimizing excess nutrients(green.blogs.

nytimes.com). It would be a good idea to put them in ditches wherewater runs off into it so that way the island would collect the water andnutrients before it has the chance to enter into drains or pipes which wouldflow into bigger bodies of water like a lake (green.blogs.nytimes.com).Artificially made floating islands are usually made from plastic material,especially things like bottles, or containers of some sort tied together verytightly to make a raft-like object (green.

blogs.nytimes.com). Then you canplace plants connected to the part of the mat that goes into the water so thatthe roots from the plants can reach into the water in order for the microbesliving on the roots to be able to use up the excess nutrients in the water andclean it properly (green.blogs.

nytimes.com). Artificially made floating islands have beenshown to get rid of or minimize nutrients that are in excess by quite a bit. Therates for getting rid of the nutrients skyrocket (floatingislandinternational.com).

Organic substances like carbon are minimized from the water and becomes a majorfeeding ground for the fish and other aquatic animals because they make contactwith adhesive substances on the roots containing microbes which are easy accessfor the fish and other aquatic animals to feed off of (floatingislandsinternational.com).                                      Shade is something that is certainly a givenwhen it comes to floating islands and their purposes. There are negatives andpositives to having the appearance of shade. A positive effect from these largeplants that produce shade on a floating island is that they interfere with thesun’s ultraviolet rays from reaching the surface of the water(nualgiponds.com).

This will deter the algae from using the sun’s rays to performphotosynthesis and therefore not be able to survive (nualgiponds.com). On topof that, algae thrive best in warmer temperature water so this does not workout well when the shade makes the water colder (nualgiponds.com).

 Like Imentioned above, there are also negative aspects of shade on not just thewater, but also on the animals living in it, as well. The negative aspect ofshade is that shade can also block not just the sun’s rays from reaching thealgae, but also blocks the sun’s rays from reaching lilies and other plants in thewater from performing photosynthesis (extension.psu.edu). As we know,photosynthesis produces oxygen so without photosynthesis there is not enough oxygenproduction meaning that the water is in need of more oxygen (extension.

psu.edu).Since oxygen is necessary for fish and plants to live, a depletion of oxygen isa big deal and can harm them if not enough oxygen is presented to them. As wasmentioned above, the water is also affected because without enough oxygen thewater can turn into a gross color and produce a potent and foul smell, as well (extension.psu.edu).

Although, there are negative impacts of shade on algae and water, the shadeproduced by floating islands did mitigate the nutrients after all because theshade greatly impacted the production of algae in the water which is what causesan accumulation of nutrients in the first place (ascelibrary.org).Wet and dry artificial floating islands purifyand clean the water that they are placed in. (ascelibrary.

org). Even though shade greatly impactsthe increase and survival of algae, artificial floating islands contain plantsthat will decrease the excess nutrients so it sort of balances each other out (ascelibrary.org).Lakes have the disability to maintain aquatic plants because of the ever not soconstant water level that rises and drops at the drop of a hat which issomething that floating islands help out with.

They can help to maintain theplants by controlling the stability of them as the water frequency changes (ascelibrary.org).Artificial floating islands are used quite a bit in Japan (ascelibrary.org).The first floating islands ever to be used were in Japan and they were builtwith sticks and twigs that were stuck or woven together (ascelibrary.com). A coupleof scientific researchers from Japan wanted to examine the water thatartificial floating islands were placed in to see the differences in the conditionof the water compared to areas without floating islands (ascelibrary.com).

They used three cells in three different areas where there was a difference inhow much surface area was covered by floating islands (ascelibrary.com).Two of the cells were placed in areas where there was a little shade, and theother cell where there was a little bit more shade from the floating island. Thethird cell was put in an area where there was no shade at all(ascelibrary.com). They found that floating islands do not cause a loss of chlorophyllin plants that live in the water (ascelibrary.

com). There was about the same amountof plants, if not more from when they started the research (ascelibrary.com).This can show that floating islands are beneficial for the quality of thewater.