Novita Kusumaning Tyas [email protected] ABSTRACT The errors can be separated from the students who learn English as their Foreign Language in writing skills. They always make error, especially in grammar term. It is because of the difference between the Indonesian and English pattern in grammar. The Indonesian Language does not have complex grammar rules like in the English Language. The purpose of this study is to find out the grammatical errors, based on Dulay, Burt and Krashen’s surface structure taxonomy (1982 in Ellis and Barkhuizen, 2005, p.61), that happen in students’ writing text in translating daily activities text from Indonesian to English. Qualitative method is used as the method in this study. The sample is 20 students of the third-semester students in Stekom Semarang. Based on the analysis, this study found that there are Introduction In Indonesia, English is taught as a Foreign Language. So, the students only use English in classroom. Outside the classroom, they use their National language (Bahasa Indonesia) or their Vernacular language as their tool of communication. That is one of the factor that Indonesian students difficult to master English language well. Besides that, they have to obey the aspects of English language such as spelling, punctuation, grammar, vocabulary and rhetoric (Muth’im, 2009:11).Students as EFL learners often make errors in learning their target language. It happens because of the different of grammatical rules between native and target language. “Language without grammar would be chaotic and cause the same communication problem, such as grammatical errors in writing and speaking.” Therefore, rather than being only rules for ordering words, grammar is indeed a resource for good communication (Halliday and Hasan, 1989 in Hyland, 2002). So, understanding and applying grammar to the target language is an important aspect of learning a new language in order not to make chaos meaning. Indonesian learners often make mistake and commit errors while learning English, especially when they write text with appropriate tenses. Besides writing, they make a lot of errors in learning English. It happens because they do not master English language well. Brown said ” Second language learning is a process that is clearly not unlike first language learning in its trial and errors nature. It means that the students learning English cannot avoid errors in learning a second language (Gass and Slinker, 1994). The third-semester students of Informatics Department, High School of Electronics and Computer (STEKOM) Semarang also commit errors when they write a text with appropriate tenses. The errors made by the students can be at a level grammar term, lexical term, orthography, lexical term, pronunciation and discourse. Grammar, from the linguistics levels, often causes they are difficult in learning English. In English, there has so many grammar rules that they should understand to make a correct sentences or utterances. Based on the situation above, the writer wants to find out and analyze the errors that the students produce based on the classification of surface taxonomy especially in grammatical errors. In this case the errors that is produced in translating Indonesian text to English text using simple present tense form. Literature Review1. The difference between error and mistake It is important to distinguish between error and mistake before analyze what error analysis is. A mistake refers to a performance in that it is a failure to utilize a known system correctly. While an error is noticeable deviation from adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the interlanguage competence of the learner (Brown, 2000). Mistake are errors performance or performance errors that have varying degrees of seriousness (Bell, 1981). Mistakes are neither systematic and nor significant to the process of language learning. Corder (1981:10) makes a distinction between errors “which are the product of such chance circumstances” for which he reserves the term mistakes and those errors which reveal imperfection in the learner’s “underlying knowledge of language” or his transitional competence”. According to Corder, errors competence are errors that are produced when the learners make something wrong in applying the rules while mistakes related to the learners’ performance, slip of tongue, which are the reflect the learners’ failure to use the L2 rules do to some sort of imperfection in the production of linguistic items. Related with Corder’s approach, Hubbard et al. (2000: 327) state that error is an “imperfect production caused by genuine lack of knowledge about the language,” on the other hand, a mistake is a “slip of tongue etc. which the student can self- correct when challenged…”. Ellis (1997: 17) stated that errors reflect gaps in a learner’s knowledge. They occur because the learners’ lack of knowledge and they do not know the correct one. On the other hand, mistakes reflect lose in performance. It can be concluded that the learners can make a correction when they make mistake. Meanwhile, when the learners make errors, they unable to make a correction. Based on the explanation from some experts about the distinction between errors and mistakes, it can be concluded that both of them have different in meaning. A mistake can be corrected by the learner itself because it only refers to the performance. On the other hand, the learners can not correct an error that they produced by themselves because it relates to their knowledge of language. 2. Error Analysis Errors are significant in three ways based on Corder and edited by Richards: ” A learner’s errors… are significant in three different ways. First to the teacher, in that they tell him if he undertakes a systematic analysis, how far towards the goals the learner has progressed… Second, they provide to the researchers evidence of how language is learned and acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in his discovery of the language. Third, they are indispensable to the learner himself because we regard to the making of errors as a device the learner uses in order to learn.” Based on the significance of errors as stated by Corder, errors made by the learners need to be analyzed correctly in order to be able to arrange an effective learning strategy by the foreign language teacher. Error analysis (EA) was first introduced by Stephen Pit Corder and his colleagues in the late 1970s and became a very popular approach for describing L2 errors. His article entitled “The significance of learner errors” in 1967 mentioned that L2 errors can reflect some of the underlying linguistics rules. This article is about the criticism of some theory of Contrastive Approach (CA). In the opposite of CA, EA does not only provide a pedagogical orientation but it can also provide a good scientific orientation. Input, practice or inductive learning do not main focus of EA. It focuses on linguistic and cognitive processes. Error Analysis (EA) was conveyed as an alternative to Contrastive Analysis (CA). In EA, the second language learners’ errors are caused by many factors that affecting the learning process. One of the factor is the target language itself (Hasyim, 1999). Corder (1973) stated that there are two main objectives of EA; theoretical and known applied. In the theoretical objective, it helps in understanding how and what a foreign language learner learns while studying a foreign language. In other side, the applied objectives concerns pedagogical purposes. It means that this objective enable the L2 learners to learn their target language more efficiently and effectively by using the previous knowledge of their dialects for pedagogical purposes. 3. Grammatical ErrorGrammar is an important thing to master and apply in learning language. It is a set of language rules organize the sounds, words, sentences, and other elements in a language. Based on Greenbaum and Nelson (2002), grammar refers to the set of rules that allow us to combine words in our language into larger units. Some combination of words are possible and others are not. In fact, every language has its own grammar rules. Learner who study foreign language must produce the sentence grammatically so that the sentences they are produced can be easily understood by the readers. As stated by Burt and Kiparsky (1974), grammatical error is an error which is not suitable to the grammatical rules that may make writing become not good. Grammatical error is the error in combining words into larger unit, such as phrases, clauses, and sentences. Grammatical error can be defined as the errors at morphological and syntactical levels. Morphological error is the error which involves a failure to comply with the norm in supplying any part of word classes; noun, verb, adjective, adverb, and preposition. Syntactical error are errors that affect texts larger than word, namely phrase, clause, sentence and paragraphs. Syntactical errors cover phrase structure, clause and sentence error (James, 1998). 4. Taxonomy of Grammatical errorsHo (2005) stated that there are four taxonomies of errors that contain parts of speech. They are errors relate to nouns and noun groups, verbs and verb groups, preposition, and sentence structure. The errors relate to nouns- noun groups consist of four categories; unnecessary insertion/ overgeneralization of plural maker -s, omission of plural maker -s (under- making of plural), inappropriate selection/ usage of quantifier/ article determiner and the last is inappropriate combination of subject and verb. The errors of verbs- verb groups consist of nine categories; omission of suffix -s/-es/-ed/-ing, omission of -ed participle after a form of the verb be, inappropriate form after modal verb (unnecessary insertion/ overgeneralization of suffix -s/-ed/-ing, inappropriate form after modal verb (omission of suffix -ed, passive form), omission of direct object, omission of infinitives to, omission of -ing participle, omission of auxiliary verb and inversion of verb- subject in indirect question format. The third errors relate to preposition; omission of preposition, unnecessary insertion of preposition and inappropriate selection or usage of preposition. The last errors relate to sentence structure that consists of dangling modifier, squinting modifier, jumbled- up or illogical sentences, incomplete or fragmented sentences, run- on sentence, inappropriate coordinating conjunction, inappropriate coordinating conjunction, inappropriate subordinating conjunction and the last is inappropriate combination of conjunction. MethodFinding and DiscussionConclusionReferences
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