Ø Article NameØ BiologicalSpecies Conceptv IntroductionBiologicalSpecies concept is mostly widely. Different scientists explain differentspecies according to their point of views that are described in a step wisemanner.v DefinitionsDifferentdefinitions according to different scientists are given below:According toDobzansky in 1937,”Specie isa group of interbreeding natural populations, that are reproductively isolatedfrom such other group”According toMayer in 1942 who firstly developed the biological specie concept,”Group of actually orpotentially interbreeding natural population which are reproductively isolatedfrom such other groups, is called specie” Thisconcept provides a useful tool to understand the many animal and plant species According to Grant in 1957,”Specie isa community of cross-fertilizing individuals that are linked together by bondsof mating and reproductively isolated from each other by barriers of mating”Weed isreproductively isolated from such other groups.
Identification of Biologicalspecie is based upon two main points i.e.1) Interbreeding among populations of the same species2) The reproductive isolation between members of different specieAccording toValentine and love in 1958,Species coulddefined on the basis of gene exchange”When twopopulations have ability to exchanging their gene under the natural orartificial condition, then both of these two populations are called conspecificmeans member of the same specie”While,”When twopopulations that don’t have ability to gene exchanging under natural or artificialconditions, they will be said as specifically distinct” v Some examples of biological species:1) Now a days, Hamadryas baboons and olive baboons are considered twodifferent species due to their genetics, but they can interbreed occasionally.So, according to the biological species concept, we can consider them onespecies, because they come into contact with each other in nature and they caninterbreed.2) Lions and tigers can reproduce and some of theiroffspring are fertile themselves.
On the one hand, we can say that both of theseare one species because they can potentially interbreed in nature under veryextreme or unlikely circumstances. But as we know that, biological speciesconcept is not without its flaws. Sometimes, it is very useful and sometimesit’s not as suitable according to other ideas.
v Limitations Abiological species concept has important impacts on the evolutionary theory. Itis limited when it is applied to specie in nature.Forexample,1) Nobody can evaluate the reproductive isolation of morphologicallysimilar fossils 2) This concept can only be applied tothose populations that are overlapped geographically3) Moreover, the criterion ofreproductive isolation cannot be evaluated in many species like, Bacteria,viruses reproduce completely asexually and are arranged to species which ismainly based on structural and biochemical characteristics