Onemay ask, since pirate operations, “begin and end on land” (Daxecker and Prins,2013, pp. 943), what has Somalia, or the international community done in termsof ground-based operations? Indeed, one reason for the success of the RomanGeneral Pompey in his operations against the Mediterranean pirates was hisutilization of both maritime and terrestrial (Army) forces (Caleb Klinger, 2008).Nelson and Fitch propose that the Western nations have been reluctant toinvolve ground forces due to their experiences in Somalia in 1993. Moreover,they state that Somali citizens themselves are rather averse to foreignmilitary boots on the ground (Nelson and Fitch, 2012, pp. 2).
The EuropeanUnion’s Operation Atalanta was tasked with onshore operations however limitedthese missions to helicopter operations and have avoided deploying ground forces.Furthermore, Nelson and Fitch averred that although African Union Mission inSomalia (AMISOM) could technically combat pirates, AMISOM has primarily focusedon Al-Shabab (Nelson and Fitch, 2012, pp. 2).
Internally, both Puntland andSomaliland created domestic forces tasked with combating the pirates; however,despite some success and desire to rid themselves of the pirates, they lack theresources to do so (Nelson and Fitch, 2012, pp. 2). Undeniably, in order tofight the pirates there must be resources, something which Somalia clearlylacks. However, in the case of Somalia there is a catch to sending kineticweapons or providing training in order to combat piracy – “the United NationsArms Embargo on Somalia, Resolution 733 (1992) and 1844 (2008), prohibits notonly the delivery of weapons to Somalia, but the provision of technicalassistance or training of a military nature without UN approval” (Nelson andFitch, 2012, pp. 3).
Therefore, while the UN wants to combat piracy and supportthe TFG in this regard, these two Resolutions (733 and 1844) are an unintendedhindrance to this goal. Internationalaction has, as we have seen, included a number of individual States andcollective organizations. Interestingly, all of the literature reviewed in theabove two sections did not mention Japanese actions once or Japaneseparticipation in international efforts. This is surprising as Japan has takenupon a greater role in many counter-piracy operations.
Because Japanese tradevolume is so maritime dependent, the activities of Somali pirates in thesewaters required Japan’s intervention to ensure the vitality and safety of theseshipping lanes and preserve the Japanese economy.