Outcome communication models that support administrationThere are a number

Outcome 1:1. Analyse
the communication needs of internal and external stakeholdersCommunication within business is always purposeful;
whether it is to inform, to teach, to persuade or to request action. It is a
process that must be understood by both the sender and receiver of the message
in order to be successful.The communication needs of internal and external
stakeholders may differ slightly due to their position in relation to the
organisation. Stakeholders are any individuals or groups that are involved with
an organisation. Internal stakeholders include people who work from within the
organisation, such as employees, volunteers, managers and owners. In my
organisation, these would include members of staff, line managers and
departmental managers, as well as the current CEO. Internal stakeholders need
to know the type of business the organisation is in, specific details regarding
the products and/or services offered, and the correct procedures to follow in
case of a problem. In my position, I need to know a certain number of procedures
specific to my admin role, as well as general staff procedures; these include
procedures regarding the production of minutes/letters etc, as well as codes of
conduct as a member of staff working for the council, such as appropriate dress
and adhering to data protection. These procedures are communicated through the
use of the staff handbook and updates are given verbally or via e-mail.External stakeholders
are the people who are affected by the work and activity of the organisation
such as; shareholders, investors, customers, clients and suppliers. These
groups need to know information regarding the branding, sale and publicity of a
product, as well as any events and sponsorship involved. In the council, these
would include; the local community, other local authorities and local
businesses. The community will need to be notified of any changes to public
spaces or council services this could include bin collection changes etc. In
terms of contact with other authorities within my role this is important as the
transfer of information about clients is a regular occurrence.2. Analyse the
different communication models that support administrationThere are a number of different patterns of communication
that take place in business. They differ due to the direction and flow of the
information. Communication within administration can involve letters, meetings,
e-mails, presentations, and memos. The quality of communication influences many
different areas of the business, such as working relationships between
colleagues and effectiveness within a team.The most ideal model, and the one my workplace
currently uses is the star model. In this model, each member of the team can
freely share information with each other. This encourages participation and
communication within a team, and also helps build healthy working relationships
between colleagues.Other models of
communication include the wheel, which is used in autocratic leadership styles,
where an individual in a managerial role takes charge of communication between
all other individuals. The chain model represents a hierarchical pattern of
communication which can sometimes be found in military organisations where
information is passed down the chain of command. A more unusual model of
communication is the called Y model. This model is similar to the wheel;
however there are 3 individuals/groups who communicate through the person in
the managerial role.3. Evaluate the
effectiveness of different communications systemsCommunication within business can be done in a
number of different ways; the method depends on the information being
delivered, its importance and the individual receiving it.Effective communication relies on how clear the
message is and making sure the appropriate method is used. It is also important
to consider any potential barriers, and know how to reduce them. When selecting
an appropriate method of communication, it is important to adapt and meet the
needs of the audience in order to overcome barriers. Factors to consider
include: age range, background and culture, status of the audience, health
issues, language differences, learning difficulties, breakdown of technology
and prejudice. Barriers may also include human error, such as poor listening
skills, lack of discussion and misinterpretation.Communication in
business can be divided into three different categories verbal, written and
online. Verbal communication includes face-to-face meetings, over the phone,
voicemail messages etc. Communicating verbally can be very effective and has
its advantages as information can be transmitted and discussed straight away.
However, it can be very easy to face barriers over the phone as individuals
cannot rely on body language or visual cues. This may make it hard to speak to
someone of a different language or someone with a learning disability. In my
role, verbal communication is key. I make sure to speak clearly and directly
when talking on the phone and to ask the caller to repeat should I not be sure
of what they said the first time around. This is especially important when it
comes to arranging any meetings or booking a room for use, as well as when
taking details such as names and phone numbers.Written communication (letters, e-mails, memos,
agendas) is a very effective way to communicate formally as messages can be
edited and revised before they are sent, as being edited to suit the needs of
the audience, e.g. larger print changed font and/or background colours, Braille
etc. This means the chance of misinterpreting the information is reduced, and a
wider audience can be reached by modifying the text. Written communication,
whether it is in a letter or an e-mail, also provides a permanent record,
whereas a verbal conversation will be lost unless it is recorded. Whilst
letters are professional and formal, they are time-consuming to send and could
take a while to be received; this is not ideal if information needs to be
received as soon as possible. Producing letters for a large audience could also
be very expensive. To overcome barriers regarding letters, important
information should be given either over the phone or in person. E-mails are a
very effective way of communicating because they are easy and quick to use, can
be both formal and informal, and can contain detailed information, as well as
attachments and documents. In my organisation, e-mails are regularly sent out
to all staff, or to specific groups of people. E-mails can be quickly replied
to, and saved for future use.In my team, the most used method of communication
to clients is via phone calls and face-to-face conversations during
home-visits. These phone calls are carried out to check if the client is any
employment or education at the moment and if not to offer them support from our
service. The home-visits are carried out when the client cannot be contacted by
other means (Phone or e-mail) or by their assigned engagement worker if they
have accepted support. It is important that during these communications that
the person delivering them is professional at all times so as to maintain the
high standard expected from the local authority.For wider
communication, online methods such as a website or social media can be used.
Social media websites such as Twitter are very effective as messages can be
relayed to a large number of people rather quickly. This has been seen to be
especially useful for making short announcements to the wider community on the
council’s official Twitter account. In a similar sense this same information
can also be displayed on the councils website with added depth; this
information could be regarding local events, news, recognizing achievements and
direction towards the correct supportive area.4. Explain the
factors that affect the choice of communication mediaRefer to above
question – Question 3 5. Explain the
importance of using the correct grammar, sentence structure, punctuation,
spelling and conventions in business communicationsIt is important in business communication that
there is structure, use of the correct grammar and spelling and that the text
is fit for purpose.Written communication must be suited to its
intended audience, presented in a way that is appropriate and should adhere to
organisational standards and formality. Sometimes communication also needs to
be completed within a deadline.In written communication, the first thing that
should be considered is structure. Structure refers to how the text is set out
and formatted. It also refers to making sure the content is organised
appropriately and in a logical order. Grouping information about a topic, and
using subheadings and short sentences will all help improve how easy it is to
read and understand the information. Typically, a letter or e-mail etc. should
have a strong introduction and a conclusive last paragraph.It is important to consider the audience with
business communication. For example, using any technical jargon and/or
abbreviations won’t be effective if they audience won’t understand them; it is
important all text is clear, direct and to the point.Even when communicating informally to a colleague,
it is important to ensure that spelling, punctuation and grammar is correct.
Punctuation helps make it easier to read information by telling the reader when
to pause etc. If the text is poorly punctuated, it might not make sense and
read incorrectly. The most important punctuation marks are full stops, commas
and apostrophes. Grammar refers to making sure the correct word and tense has
been used in a sentence. For example, using “are” instead of “is” for plurals,
or making sure the correct pronouns have been used. Most written communication
is completed on Microsoft Word where there is a built-in feature to spell check
the document.Poor writing skills, especially when communicating
to customers and other organisations, will likely leave a bad impression and
discourage any further and future custom. In my team, there are set conventions
to be followed when sending out an e-mail, letter or even a spreadsheet. This
can be as simple as the font used, positioning of any logos to the
proof-reading and exact language and lay-out that should be used in a given
situation.Verbal communication,
such as presentations, should be planned and rehearsed beforehand to ensure
they are professional. It is important to consider the audience with
presentations as they need to able to see the presentation, as well as hear the
speaker. Any hand-outs produced with the presentation will also need to be
suited to the audience in order to meet their needs.6. Explain the
factors to be taken into account in planning and structuring different
communication mediaRefer to above
question – Question 57. Explain ways of
overcoming barriers to communicationRefer to above
question – Question 38. Explain the use of
communication theories and body languageThis is the best model of communication between two
people developed by Schramm. It suggests that communication is a two way
process where the sender (encoder) and receiver (decoder) take turns to relay
messages. The theory suggests that communication is a continuous cycle and each
message needs interpreting before a new message can be sent.      This model is dynamic as it suggests a circular
process of communication and highlights that messages can be sent and received
by the same person. It also takes interpretation into consideration with the
use of encoding and decoding.However, due to how basic this model is, it does
not consider any interference or “noise” receive between messages. The Shannon
and Weaver model of communication develops Schramm’s model to include this
aspect of communication.    This model follows the same style as Schramm’s
model as it includes a decoder and encoder, as well as information returning to
the sender. However it also takes notes of the fact that communication is not
always clear as “noise” may interfere with the message during the process. This
could be in the form of misunderstanding, messages being misconstrued along the
chain of command, or physical noises/technical problems in the case of
communication over the phone/voicemail messages.As well as verbal, written and online,
communication can also be non-verbal. This includes body language, facial
expressions, posture, tone of voice and physical space between individuals
(this is known as proxemics). Studies have shown that the majority of verbal
communication is made up of non-verbal cues; this is why it is important in
business communication that body language matches the professionalism and
context of information being delivered. Body language primarily includes facial
expressions, gestures and tone of voice. The face can express many different emotions;
smiling shows the individual is friendly and non-threatening, whereas raised
eyebrows show confusion. Eye contact is also an important part of body
language. Consistent eye contact can show confidence and awareness, whereas
shifty eyes show dishonesty and uneasiness.A person’s posture also has a big impact on the way
they communicate themselves. For example, crossed arms may indicate that person
is very defensive and disagreeable, looking down or hands on head may show
guilt or shame. Sometimes however body language can be ambiguous, for example a
tilted head may show interest or boredom. It depends on the culture and the
context of communication.Voice is also another important part of body
language, it includes tone of voice, timing, pace, rhythm, pitch and
inflection. Speaking very quickly and quietly may indicate the individual is
nervous, whereas a strong, clear voice suggests confidence and authority.When talking to a
parent or visitor on reception, it is important to maintain eye contact and be
as professional as possible. I make sure I pay attention to what they are
saying and have a friendly, approachable posture. It is also important to
ensure my tone of voice is calm and clear, and to not speak over the visitor.9. Explain
proof-reading techniques for business communicationsThe best way to proof-read a document is to ask a
colleague to read through it; this is useful as they will pick up mistakes more
easily. Alternatively, reading the text aloud will also highlight any mistakes
made with punctuation and/or grammar.When producing Word documents, it is important not
to rely on a spell-check function as it will not pick up incorrect grammar, for
example words that are spelt correctly but in the wrong context; such as
“their” and “there”. Similarly, it is important to check numerical values such
as dates and times, as spell-check will not highlight numbers if they are wrong.A helpful technique when proof-reading is to
reading sentences in the wrong order as this will highlight any mistakes with
missing words. Other techniques include double checking punctuation such as
apostrophes, for example a common mistake is using an apostrophe for plurals;
apostrophes should only be used for possession and contraction.