Photosynthesis often identified as global warming (Advancing the science

Photosynthesis is the process wherein plants, algae,
and photosynthetic bacteria use light energy from the sun to synthesize organic
compounds. The photosynthetic process in plants, algae, and certain types of
bacteria release oxygen as a by-product and intake the carbon dioxide present
in the atmosphere for the synthesis of carbohydrates, in a type of
photosynthesis called oxygenic photosynthesis (Whitmarsh, 1999). Photosynthetic
organisms such as plants, algae, and certain types of bacteria rely on the
intake of carbon dioxide to initiate the process of photosynthesis, however in
recent years the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been increasing due
to the effects of human activity. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (2007), the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG)
carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased as a consequence of
human activity since 1750 and have been surpassed about 80% of the
pre-industrial era values.  Annually, 10%
of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is being converted into useful carbohydrates
by photosynthetic organisms, making a significant impact on the earth’s
atmosphere and overall climate. Thus, these photosynthetic organism’s abilities
are limited by the state of the conditions of our atmosphere and climate
(Whitmarsh & Govindjee,1999).

“Photosynthesis is intimately tied to climatic
conditions, both directly and indirectly. While light absorption is independent
of temperature, the subsequent steps in converting light into chemical energy
respond to temperature in complex ways” (Kirschbaum, 2004, p. 242). Photosynthesis
responds to all aspects of a climate, showing indirect and direct
ecophysiological responses to different carbon dioxide concentration. In many
experimental studies C3 plants tended to react strongly to the
increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, while only a minor
response has been observed in C4 plants (Kirschbaum,2004).

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Climate change is characterized as the change in
weather patterns which last for extended periods of time. It may refer to
changes in normal weather condition or in the variation of weather duration
regarding longer-term average conditions. It has been identified that increase
in anthropogenic activities have contributed to the consequences of the ongoing
climate change, often identified as global warming (Advancing the science of
climate change. 2010).