PRACTICAL Transformers: Ø Laminated core Ø Windings Ø Insulating

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICAL WORK ON THREE PHASE
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER (PW1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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                                                Yase
Regise Peter

                                                Lakshmi Narayanan

                                                Tamilazhagan

 

                                      Submitted To:

                                                Prof.A.Mansoura
Sid Ali

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.    
Aim:

The aim
is based on the principles of a 3 phase grid power supply. In this experiment
we implement the method to nonlinear loads. Here we study about the relation
between

 

·                                                                    
RMS Value of Voltage

·                                                                    
RMS Value of Current

·                                                                    
Relation between Phase Voltage (V) and Current (I)

 

2.    
Objective
Of The Experiment:

To calculate the current fluctuation in the case of Non-Linear loads.

 

3.    
Specifications
of the Transformer:

 

 

 

 

For 3
Phase Current, to calculate the Power

    P = Ö3 U I cos q

    Where q = 0

 

 

Primary windings:

At
constant voltage 250V the primary current In1 = 5.33A.

 

Secondary Windings:

Voltage,
U = ?3 *2 * 63
= 218.23 V, where U = 63 is the voltage in secondary windings because it is a
step down transformer.

 

 

Power, P
= ?3 *2 * 63
* In2 and In2 = 10.584 A, the current in the secondary
windings.

 

 

4.    
Elements:

 

                                                                              
i.           
Transformer

                                                                            
ii.           
Power Analyser

 

i.                  
Transformers:

An
electrical instrument which increases and decreases the voltage of an
alternating current without making any changes in its frequency by means of
electromagnetic induction.

 

Types of transformer:

·     Step-Up Transformer:

Transformer
which converts low voltage into high voltage.

·     Step-Down Transformer

Transformer
which converts high voltage into low voltage.

 

 

Principle of Transformer:

 

Transformer
consists of two isolated coils which works on the Faradays principle of mutual
induction, nothing but the electromagnetic induction.

Working of transformer:

 A current varies in one coil of the transformer which
produces a varying magnetic field. This in turn induces a varying electromotive force (emf) in the secondary coil. Power is
transferred between the two coils through the magnetic field.

 

 

The
change of voltage between the primary and secondary coils depends on the ratio
of turns of the two coils. To increase the flux linkage, an
iron core provides a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux.

 

 

Parts of Transformers:

 

 

Ø Laminated core

Ø Windings

Ø Insulating materials

Ø Oil

Ø Tap changer

Ø Oil Conservator

Ø Breather

Ø Cooling tubes

Ø Buchholz Relay

Ø Explosion vent

 

Types of losses in Transformers:

 

Core losses           :
Eddy current and Hysteresis losses

Copper losses      :
In the resistance of windings

 

 

Eddy Current Losses:

Eddy currents generate
resistive losses that
transform some forms of energy such as kinetic energy into heat. 

 

 

            
   Hysteresis Loss:

 

The energy lost as heat is known as the hysteresis
loss. In reversing the magnetization of the material is proportional to the
area of the hysteresis loop.

 

ii Power
Analyser:

It measures
the various parameters of an electrical power system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.   
Precautions

 

·       
Make connections according to the
circuit diagram given and checked it by the professor before switching it ON.

 

·       
Make sure all the equipment’s are earth properly
and wear shoes throughout the laboratory time.

 

·       
Liquid items should not be kept
near the equipment’s.

·       
The control knob in the
electrodynamometer should be used gently and increased gradually to avoid
sudden rise in the current.

 

·       
Do not cross the prescribed
maximum value, which cause damage to the transformer.

 

·       
Once the data acquisition is
completed, switch off the main supply to avoid over heating of the instruments.

 

 

6.     
Circuit
of a Transformer:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The combination of batteries and resistances with this
two terminals can be replaced using a single voltage and a single Resistor

By
Thevenin’s Theorem

Zth
= Rs + jLS

The value of the single Voltage source “Eth”
is the open circuit voltage at the terminals and the value of “Zth”
is “Eth” divided by the current with the terminals short circuited.

 

 

1)    Components
of resistance- Resistor

 

2)    Components
of reactance- Inductor

                                                          Zth= Rs + jLs?

7.        
Experimental
set-up

 

Power Supply
3 x 400 V.

 

                                     
i.              
Switch.

 

                                  
ii.              
Transformer

 

a)                
Primary source

 

b)                
Secondary source

           

                                     
iii.         
Simple Voltage

 

                                     
iv.         
Compound Voltage

 

                                       
v.         
RMS Current

 

                                     
vi.         
Power Analyzer.

 

                                  
vii.         
Voltmeter

 

 

 

8.    
Block
diagram of the circuit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.       
Experimental
Process:

 

Star connection is processed with primary set up
and other connections are connected to the primary to the power analyser
through the clamps with different colours. 6 rounds are made and clamped with
the respective arrow mark in the clamp signifies the outlet of the wire to be
drawn from the clamps. Now we can measure a significant value of current.

 

Now in the secondary circuit we connect the two
loops from one end to another end to form the secondary coil and at the bottom
it will replicate the star connection which is similar to the connection made
in the primary coil. Finally, the voltmeter is connected to the secondary
circuit as well.

 

 

 

10.
The 3
Phase Transformer in Star Connection:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

11. Power Analyser Connection:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12.  
Total
Experimental Circuit Connection:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13.  
Calculations

      i) Current Calculations

 

 

From the power analyser we can see that

 

     I1
= 2.2 A,

     I2
= 1.7 A and

      I3
= 2.3 A

 

To find the RMS current through each wire the
current has to be divided by 6 because we have used 6 turns of wire inside the
clamp.

 

So using the RMS values from the above graph, we get

Iv1
= 2.2/6 = 0.36666 A

 

Iv2
= 1.7/6 = 0.28333 A (central column current)

 

Iv3
= 2.3 /6 = 0.38333 A

 

All these currents are not equal because Iv2 magnetic field lines
acts as an intermediate and has more losses than Iv1 and Iv3.

 

On making
Comparison between the primary no-load current with rated value of the nominal
current we can see that the primary no-load current is 0.36666 A which is less
than 10% of the nominal current which is 5.33 A.

 

We can use the primary coil of a transformer to get
an inductance, since the currents are not equal in their phases with each
other.

 

 

.              ii) Voltage Calculations

                                                                       

a)      Compound Voltage

  The compound voltage          U1=
402.7 V, U2=403.0 V and U3
= 403.3 V are seems to be balanced and equal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The
compound voltage are all 120•
out of phase to each other.

 

b)     Normal
Voltage:

 

The Normal Voltage

 

      V1 = 232.4 V,

      V2
= 231.9 V,

      V3 = 232.9 V

 

are also balanced and equal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                  

 

 

 

   The Normal voltage are all 120• out of phase to each
other.

 

 

 

 

 

 

iii) Relation Between the voltage and current for
respective line

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The current and voltage are +059°,+073° and +080° out of
phase with each other for Line 1, line 2 and Line 3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. 
Conclusions:

 

 

From this experiment we observed the working of a
3-Phase transformer and the nature of the non-linear load shows the non-linear
characteristics of the current.