Sleeplessness is a general term for difficulties in starting or maintaining sleep. The problem of sleeplessness is widespread and causes some problems in people’s daily lives. In this study, behavioural interventions for sleeplessness are presented in the eye. The research includes a behaviour modification technique to be used in solving the sleeplessness. The problems caused by sleeplessness and the behaviour modification technique are briefly explained. As a result of the study, the participant stated that there was no real decrease in sleeplessness during treatment. According to this result, it can be said that the treatment of behaviour modification cannot come from above the sleeplessness problem. In future works, “Behaviour modification” should be studied in more detail.
Keywords : Behaviour modification , sleeplessness , mood changes , migraine , academic success
Behaviour modification is a set of techniques primarily based on operant conditioning (Skinner, 1938, 1963). The principle precept contains converting environmental occasions which can be associated with someone’s behaviour. As an instance, the reinforcement of preferred behaviours and ignoring or punishing undesired ones. One of the examples of habitual behaviour that may be sleeplessness. As sleeplessness can have many bad effects on human body and psychology. To illustrate, according to Calhoun and Ford (2007), sleep troubles have been connected with a headache and behavioural sleep modification (BSM) might be associated with improvement in headache frequency and depth and with reversion to an episodic migraine. In addition, we may also mention that sleeplessness is an effect on academic achievement. According to the study of Curcio, Ferrara & Gennaro, (2006), regulating the sleeping time of students who are from different educational level (primary school to college) increased these students’ academic successes. Moreover, behavioural modification techniques have been used in many studies to solve the sleeplessness problem. The purpose of the study is to show the evidence of effectiveness, intensity, and generalizability of psychological and behavioural interventions for sleeplessness (Morin, C. M., Bootzin, R. R., Buysse, D. J., Edinger, J. D., Espie, C. A., & Lichstein, K. L. (2006)). With behaviour modification, people can change their negative and unwanted behaviour. Various reinforcements and prizes can be used in this method. In this study, behaviour modification has been tried to reduce sleeplessness.
The participant was a 21 years old female student at Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus, she is enrolled in an undergraduate Psychology Program. She was voluntary to participate in this report. In partial fulfilment of the requirements for PSYC 281.
The participant had used the day planner to record her data daily and she used Token Economy by saving money for every successful day. (Every successful day’s saved 5 TL.) regular watch was used to collect the data. Kazdin, & Bootzin, (1972) explain that a commonly used behaviour modification technique is a positive reinforcement that promotes certain behaviours through a reward system, and examples of behaviour modification therapy may include token economy. The number one purpose of a token economy system is to increase suited behaviour and reduce undesirable behaviour.
The aim of the participants was to reduce sleeplessness and regulate sleeping hours. The first reason for the participants to choose this behaviour was that they did not feel psychologically and physically well during periods of sleeplessness. During the days of sleeplessness, the participant had a headache, a sudden feeling and anger change. She wanted to fix her sleeping schedule is that she wanted to be in a good mood. According to Edinger, Fins, Glenn, Sullivan, Bastian, Marsh, & Vasilas (2000) shows that depressed mood is related to perceived sleep. That’s why to have a better mood she needed to change her sleeping habit. In addition, the participant wanted to be academically successful, so he thought a good model of sleep was needed. In addition, the times when she slept late and woke up early, she stated that she cannot focus on the classes.
In this study, operant conditioning was applied every day, and the token economy was used as a positive reinforcement by saving money for every successful day. There was a certain period of time in the study to ensure that each level was correctly interpreted. These periods are; Baseline, Intervention, Thinning and Follow-up. In addition, only self-monitoring has been used in all periods. In Baseline Period did not use reinforcements, only data was collected, and this phase lasted for 1 week. In the Intervention Period reinforcement began to be used. This period lasted for 2 weeks. In the Thinning Period, the participant used the money she saved to buy books. This phase lasted for 2 weeks. In the follow-up period, there was no prize, only data was collected, and this period took 1 week. During this period, the data were recorded carefully. The participant changed the position of her bed in the room and tried to stay away from the electronic devices such as the phone in bed. She tried to drink relaxing drinks to be able to sleep quickly. When she was successful she won 5 TL. When she had money enough to buy a book, she did which was her delayed reward. This study lasted a total of 72 days and the participant obtained a reward for the increased sleeping hours.
The descriptive statistic used to discover if there was a treatment for regulating sleeplessness. Each periods of means were recorded (MBaseline = 6.29, MIntervention-1 = 6.14, MIntervent?on-2 = 6.71, MFollow-up = 7.21, MThinnig = 6.86). The means show that there is a noticeable decrease in regulating sleeplessness (see Figure 1). After Baseline Period, in the Intervention-1 period, there was a drop observed. However, after Intervention-1, even though there was a drop in the Intervention-1 period, after the period, an increase was observed in the means of sleeping but after Intervention-2 and Follow-up Periods, there was a quite decrease in Thinning Period.
The purpose of this study is to regulate sleeplessness with the help of behaviour modification. Each periods of means were recorded, and the means show that there is a no noticeable decrease in regulating sleeplessness. In the regulation sleeplessness, the hypothesis that behaviour modification would be beneficial was not supported.
When we look at similar studies done, for example, Calhoun and Ford (2007) stated that sleeplessness may cause headache. The behaviour modification method has been tried to solve the sleeplessness problem and it has been observed that the chronic pain of the subjects decreases at this number.
In addition, some limitations must be specified. First, changing an existing behaviour or acquiring a new behaviour is a difficult process. Also, the study period was not enough to change behaviour. Second, reinforcement and reward systems were used in the study, but the participant was not determined to change their behaviour because they did not find these reinforcements satisfactory. Third, the mood was also associated with sleep duration and participants when the participant feels unhappy, especially experienced more sleeplessness. In addition, the participant can get help in this process because it increases the chances of disruption alone.
Future research should examine techniques that can help achieve a more comprehensive model of the relationship between problem behaviour and behaviour modification. These areas must be something much more motivating.