South America is considered as a well-known continent, the center of soccer culture, and most importantly, a center of fascinating and growing economies of the world in modern times. Several countries of the continent were part of Spanish occupation for several years leading to growth-oriented lifestyle and culture. To know more about the mystery of how some of these countries, especially Brazil, have developed to be the fastest growing economies in the world and how the history of country has contributed to its growth, we need to turn the pages of history to look back at evolution of how the tribes and natives of these countries lived.The Bororo tribe live in Mato Grosso, Brazil and was discovered in the 1930’s by an explorer. The Bororo tribe uses 2 main languages, Portuguese and Bororo. The language is spoken by about a thousand individuals that make up the ethnic group in Brazil. But, before these two languages, there is a cultural language the Bororo people call Boe Wadáru. Until the end of the 1970s, The Salesian Indigenous Mission subjected children and teenagers to a school system that prohibited the use of the native tongue to be spoken in the villages of Meruri and Sangradouro. This action almost caused the extinction of the Bororo language. Today the Bororo language is spoken by almost the entire Bororo population. The Salesian Missions is a Roman Catholic Latin Rite religious institute founded in the late nineteenth century by Italian priest Saint John Bosco to help poor children during the Industrial Revolution. With the language, the Bororo people also share a number of beliefs that originate from their indigenous religion. The Bororo declined to eat maize or meat until after it’s been blessed by a doctor, due to the belief that coming in conatct or eating unholy maize or meat could kill those who eat it, along with the entire tribe. The Bororo also relate breath odor with a person’s soul and body odor with a person’s life. There are two main ceremonial items, the poari and the ceremonial headdress. The poari is a clarinet-type instrument. The poari consists of a gourd enhanced with parrot feathers and a narrow cane reed that fits inside of the gourd. The upper end of the reed is closed, while the lower end is left open, allowing the air to rumble within the gourd. It is said that the Bororo still use this particular instrument in their ceremonies. The use of ceremonial headdresses was recorded in 1791 by Portuguese scientist, who got a bright, colorful headdress along with a ritual stone ax used by the Bororo. The Bororo people usually keep these items at their house. The Bororo people used thatched houses are arranged in a circle around a central clearing, in which the men’s house is built. Households belonging to a given moiety(each of two social or ritual groups into which a people is divided) are located along one-half of the circle; those of the other moiety use the other half. Within the moiety areas, households of each kindred are grouped together. As in the picture below, the Bororo’s huts have a cone-shaped, thatched hut made out of grass and held together with long pieces of string and mud walls. The house has only one entrance and provides enough security to keep the dwellers content. In the complex Bororo social organization individuals are identified according to their clan, their ancestry, and their residential group. Descent among the Bororo is based on kinship with the mother or the female line; thus the newborn receives a name that will identify him/her to his/her mother’s clan. However, although that is the ideal normal formality of conduct, in practice this may be manipulated in order to satisfy other interests. The village is divided into two exogamic halves – Exerae and Tugarége -, each of them subdivided into four main clans, which are composed of several lineages. There is a hierarchy among lineages manifested in categories such as larger, smaller, more important, less important, older brother and younger brother. The Bororo tribe does not have a wide extent of a settlement but, their language has a greater area of the map than their settlement as you see below.In the traditional political structure, three powers can be identified: the Boe eimejera, who is the chief of war, of the village and of the ceremonial; the Bári, who is the shaman of the spirits and of nature; and the Aroe Etawarare, who is the shaman of the souls of the dead. Nowadays there is also the Bae eimejera, who is the chief of whites, that is, the chief who does the interface with the white toned people. When the Europeans invaded the Bororo tribe, the chief of the whites had to go up to them and talk to them. But, they have to represent themselves culturally with their most significant artifact.The most significant artifact in the Bororo tribe would be their headdress. Their headdress is used in many celebrations, rituals, and games. The headdresses were supposed to form images of mythological creatures with blood ties to people in their tribe. There is also a certain stylishness in the headdress that is made up of a red woven frame and delicate dyed eagle feathers. When headdress is tied around your head, the headdress curves in a way that will surround your entire head. As I said before, the headdress is a popular artifact in Bororo culture. For 6,600 years they remained aalone and unkown by the outside world. In the 17th century, Spanish conquistadors came to the region and forced the Bororo to split into two halves, the Eastern and Western Bororo. The Eastern Bororo ran deep into the forest and once again became alone. However, the Western Bororo did not run and in the next hundred years, died from disease, violence, and land loss. In the mid-1800s, the Eastern Bororo once again met the Europeans who approached them; however, this time they decided to exist side-by-side with the invaders. Since the 17th century, the Bororo tribe has gained many rights in the field of land, customs, and value preservation. The Bororo community has lost a lot of land and people in their community due to their unneeded interaction with outsiders, like the Spanish Empire. However, over the years they were able to slowly blend themselves into the modern ways of Brazilian society without the loss of their culture.Not many people help the Bororo tribe but, there were some government projects. In 1997, the only government project in the region was the Prodelagro, a State initiative with financial support from the World Bank. This project has not developed actions in the region’s agricultural and cattle raising activities but has provided some resources for the sectors of health and education directed to Indigenous communities, such as the Projeto Tucum (Tucum Project), which aims at forming Indigenous teachers. The actions of non-governmental agencies for the Bororo are developed by the CIMI, the Salesian Mission and by oth1er entities of health assistance, such as Doctors without borders and German dentists, among others.The Bororo tribe have many aspects, some appealing and some alien. One aspect that is very alien is that the Bororo tribe “Besides funeral and naming, the Bororo’s intense ritual life includes also the perforation of the ears and of the lower lip” so, they punctured the lower lip and ears with rings. Another aspect that is alien is that they smear paint all over their face and lips during celebrations. One aspect that is appealing of the Bororo tribe is that they recognize a wide range of ecological zones and subzones’ in the environment that surrounds them, among which the most important are the Bokú (the savannas of Central Brazil), Boe Éna Jaka (transition areas) and Itúra (forest).There are not many people in the Bororo tribe but, available historical information shows that in the last decades of the 19th Century there were some 10,000 Bororo people. However, within a few years, many of them died in the results of the negative effects of contact, such as wars, plagues, and famines. The picture was so depressing that anthropologist Darcy Ribeiro when inspecting the 1932 Census, stated that the high degree of safety of the Bororo was an signaling that they were in the last stages of the extinction process. However, from the 1970s on, population growth has occurred, and the 626 individuals counted in 1979 are now 1,024.Predictions are that the future of the Bororo tribe may be in danger. Bororo language is close to being extinct and the Bororo tribe are the only thing that is keeping it from going extinct. As stated near the beginning, the Bororo tribe has a knack for running into the Europeans. The white chief might diminish from the tribe over time, being that there are not many more known “white” enemies. The territory might also diminish and may cause the extinction of the Bororo tribe. The Bororo tribe already only have a small area in the state of Mato Grosso and may fully disappear around the year of 2025. There are a few world organizations helping indigenous tribes, like the Bororo tribe. One of these organizations is called The United Nations World Conference of indigenous people. Their goal is to help the kids who do not get enough education in indigenous tribes. Another group is called the cultural survival group, whose mission is to broadcast the indigenous people’s rights and many other things that affect the communities of indigenous tribes.
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