strings role as an antagonist to the quadriceps within

strings injury                Regnum: 174239



In human anatomy, the thigh is the region between the pelvis
and the knee. Automatically, it is considered a part of the lower limb, in
cross-section the thigh is divided up into three separate compartments, divided
by fascia and each containing different muscles.

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Each of those compartments has its own nerve supply and
contains different group of muscles.

These compartments can be divided in medial fascial
compartment which includes the adductor muscles, secondly, the posterior
fascial compartment which includes hamstrings muscles, and finally the anterior
fascial compartments that include Pectineus, Sartorius and the four muscles
which compromise the quadriceps muscles.


The hamstrings muscles cross and act over two joints:  the Hip and the Knee.

The hamstrings have got a very important role in a lot of
the daily activities such as running, jumping, and controlling a few movements
within the trunk. In walking, the hamstring muscles cover a vital role as an
antagonist to the quadriceps within the deceleration of knee extension (Via my
modules: muscles of the thigh).


Hamstring injuries are one of the most widespread injuries
in the sport, and it causes a huge loss of training and competition time, and
considerably change the quality of life of injured athletes. This also let us
understand a need to prevent the injury.

It also interesting to have a look and understand how often
hamstring injuries occur and which sports are most affected.

Based on the different studies that have been performed by
different researchers, it has been reported that the highest percentage of
hamstrings injury rate occurs in Australian football, in fact has been reported
by Verrall G.M. (2001) that the 30% of Australian football player complained of
posterior thigh pain upon one season.


It also has been highlighted by Orchard J and Seward H
(2002) that there have been Hamstrings injury rate of six injuries per club
over a season in Australian football between 1997 and 2000.

It also has been said that hamstrings injuries are also very
common in English rugby, and as matter of the fact Brooks JH (2006) has been
found that there was an effect of 0.27 of hamstrings strain injuries over 1000
player training hours and at the same time an average of 5.6 of 1000 player
match hours, respectively discovered between 2002 and 2004;

Brooks JH also reported that hamstrings muscle injuries
cause about 17 days of lost training/playing time, these results show, that
hamstrings muscle injury was the second most widespread injury in English

Many other studies have highlighted, that hamstrings muscle
injury rate is also high in many individual sports.

It has also been found that among other physical activities
such as dancing there is high risk of injury rate, and as matter of the fact
Askling C (2002) reported that almost 34% of dancers has been affected by
hamstring muscles strain injury and 17% have been experienced with overuse
injuries of hamstring muscles.





Through the statistics which has been reported, it is
possible understand that Injuries to the hamstrings muscle groups may be very
dangerous to the athletes because this kind of injury used to heal slowly and
they tend to occur very often, in fact due to 
different studies which have been conducted by Wood C, Hawkins RD,
Maltby, Hulse M, Thomas A (2004) has been verified that injuries at the
hamstring muscles groups reoccur very often, as has been reported, for
example,  that in English professional
soccer the average of players who have been suffered from hamstrings muscle
injuries is between 12% and 48%, or another significant value that can show it
is that in Australian football almost 34% of players complained about reinjured
of hamstrings muscles group within one year of returning to sport.


The consequence and the averaged time that an athlete need
for returning to sport are determined by the severity of the injury.

Clanton TO and Coupe KJ (1998) as results of their studies,
they have been stated that Hamstrings muscles lesion like any other kind of
muscles lesions have been broadly categorized by their severity which have been
identified into three different grades;

Grade one which presents a mild strain injury with a small amount of muscles fibres involved, with localised pains but no reduction in strength; then has been identified Grade two which present a moderate muscle strain injury where a significant number of muscles fibres are involved and it also presents a significant loss of strength and consecutively the movement is limited by the pain, and lastly grade three that is the most severe among the three but at the same time the rarest, which presents a whole rupture of the musculotendinous unit with a severe functional disability (Clanton TO, Coupe KJ,1998, and Via my modules, Hip Ax 1, muscle lesions).During their studies they also stated that the averaged time losses for each grade muscles lesion  are 17 ± 10 days for grade one; 22 ± 11 days for grade two and finally 73 ± 60 days for grade three.  

A hamstring muscle stress is the maximum common harm that
shows up to the athletes, and the causes of it may be extensively classified
into clinical risk factors and muscle risk factors.

Understand the risk factor of the injury could be a crucial
point to prevent and studies the right rehabilitation strategies.

Clark RA (2008) has carried out vary studies about the risk assessment
and prevention of the injury, and has been stated that the risk has to be
classified in modifiable risk factors which include shortened optimum muscle length,
lack of muscle flexibility, strength imbalance, insufficient warm-up, fatigue, low
back injury and increased muscle neural tension; and then non-modifiable risk
factors which are muscle composition, age, race and previous injury.