strings injury Regnum: 174239 In human anatomy, the thigh is the region between the pelvisand the knee. Automatically, it is considered a part of the lower limb, incross-section the thigh is divided up into three separate compartments, dividedby fascia and each containing different muscles.Each of those compartments has its own nerve supply andcontains different group of muscles.
These compartments can be divided in medial fascialcompartment which includes the adductor muscles, secondly, the posteriorfascial compartment which includes hamstrings muscles, and finally the anteriorfascial compartments that include Pectineus, Sartorius and the four muscleswhich compromise the quadriceps muscles. The hamstrings muscles cross and act over two joints: the Hip and the Knee.The hamstrings have got a very important role in a lot ofthe daily activities such as running, jumping, and controlling a few movementswithin the trunk.
In walking, the hamstring muscles cover a vital role as anantagonist to the quadriceps within the deceleration of knee extension (Via mymodules: muscles of the thigh). Hamstring injuries are one of the most widespread injuriesin the sport, and it causes a huge loss of training and competition time, andconsiderably change the quality of life of injured athletes. This also let usunderstand a need to prevent the injury.It also interesting to have a look and understand how oftenhamstring injuries occur and which sports are most affected.
Based on the different studies that have been performed bydifferent researchers, it has been reported that the highest percentage ofhamstrings injury rate occurs in Australian football, in fact has been reportedby Verrall G.M. (2001) that the 30% of Australian football player complained ofposterior thigh pain upon one season. It also has been highlighted by Orchard J and Seward H(2002) that there have been Hamstrings injury rate of six injuries per clubover a season in Australian football between 1997 and 2000.It also has been said that hamstrings injuries are also verycommon in English rugby, and as matter of the fact Brooks JH (2006) has beenfound that there was an effect of 0.27 of hamstrings strain injuries over 1000player training hours and at the same time an average of 5.
6 of 1000 playermatch hours, respectively discovered between 2002 and 2004; Brooks JH also reported that hamstrings muscle injuriescause about 17 days of lost training/playing time, these results show, thathamstrings muscle injury was the second most widespread injury in Englishrugby. Many other studies have highlighted, that hamstrings muscleinjury rate is also high in many individual sports.It has also been found that among other physical activitiessuch as dancing there is high risk of injury rate, and as matter of the factAskling C (2002) reported that almost 34% of dancers has been affected byhamstring muscles strain injury and 17% have been experienced with overuseinjuries of hamstring muscles. Through the statistics which has been reported, it ispossible understand that Injuries to the hamstrings muscle groups may be verydangerous to the athletes because this kind of injury used to heal slowly andthey tend to occur very often, in fact due to different studies which have been conducted by Wood C, Hawkins RD,Maltby, Hulse M, Thomas A (2004) has been verified that injuries at thehamstring muscles groups reoccur very often, as has been reported, forexample, that in English professionalsoccer the average of players who have been suffered from hamstrings muscleinjuries is between 12% and 48%, or another significant value that can show itis that in Australian football almost 34% of players complained about reinjuredof hamstrings muscles group within one year of returning to sport. The consequence and the averaged time that an athlete needfor returning to sport are determined by the severity of the injury.
Clanton TO and Coupe KJ (1998) as results of their studies,they have been stated that Hamstrings muscles lesion like any other kind ofmuscles lesions have been broadly categorized by their severity which have beenidentified into three different grades; Grade one which presents a mild strain injury with a small amount of muscles fibres involved, with localised pains but no reduction in strength; then has been identified Grade two which present a moderate muscle strain injury where a significant number of muscles fibres are involved and it also presents a significant loss of strength and consecutively the movement is limited by the pain, and lastly grade three that is the most severe among the three but at the same time the rarest, which presents a whole rupture of the musculotendinous unit with a severe functional disability (Clanton TO, Coupe KJ,1998, and Via my modules, Hip Ax 1, muscle lesions).During their studies they also stated that the averaged time losses for each grade muscles lesion are 17 ± 10 days for grade one; 22 ± 11 days for grade two and finally 73 ± 60 days for grade three. A hamstring muscle stress is the maximum common harm thatshows up to the athletes, and the causes of it may be extensively classifiedinto clinical risk factors and muscle risk factors. Understand the risk factor of the injury could be a crucialpoint to prevent and studies the right rehabilitation strategies. Clark RA (2008) has carried out vary studies about the risk assessmentand prevention of the injury, and has been stated that the risk has to beclassified in modifiable risk factors which include shortened optimum muscle length,lack of muscle flexibility, strength imbalance, insufficient warm-up, fatigue, lowback injury and increased muscle neural tension; and then non-modifiable riskfactors which are muscle composition, age, race and previous injury.