Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use, with thepurpose of meeting human necessities while conserving the environment so thatthese needs can be met not only in the present but also for generations to come.Increasing population growth rates is a challenge that the future generationsare facing, which results in the rise of need for more resources for energy. Thereforenatural resources should be liberally secured in spite of intense humanactivity.
Sustainable development is influenced by three major factors such asenvironmental, economic and socio-political factors. Therefore these goals mustbe met to achieve sustainable development. For example to guarantee asustainable development there must be a healthy population that is economicallyempowered, with a sensible mind, educated and with preferable values. Such typeof population is as an effect of good governance and proper policies. Some ofthe factors essential for sustainable development comprise of; right managementof natural resources, poverty abolition, proper utilization behaviors that willlead to sustainable production patterns and proper policies in respect of environmentmanagement and investment. Wasteland Reclamation means re-claiming it or to use it forproductive purpose.
Wasteland reclamation is the method of changing infertile,sterile wasteland into something that is fertile and appropriate for habitationand cultivation.The need for wasteland reclamation includes:-Providessource of income to poor people.-Ensuresa constant supply of fuel, fodder and timber for local use.
-Makessoil fertile by preventing soil erosion and conserving moisture.-Theprogram helps maintain ecological balance in the area.-Theincreasing forest cover helps in maintaining local climatic conditions.Somemethods of wasteland reclamation includes Afforestation,Reforestation, Providing surface cover, Mulching, Changing ground topography ondownhill, Leaching, Changing agricultural practices and Ecological succession. 17. Defineecosystem.
Describe in detail various components of an ecosystem with suitableexamples. Ans: It is the fundamentalunit of ecology which includes all the living things in the area, theirsurroundings, and all the different ways in which they interact with each otheris called as an ecosystem. COMPONENTSOF ECOSYSTEM 1.ABIOTICCOMPONENTSIt is a non-livingenvironment of the ecosystem. Solar energy provides all the energy for theecosystem.ü Inorganicsubstances: Sulphur, boron, etc.
ü Organiccompound, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids etc.ü Climaticconditions and physical factors of the given region 2.BIOTIC COMPONENTS Thebiotic components of an ecosystem include all the living components.
In thistype of classification, these are: i)Autotrophs (primary producers)a) Phototrophs uses sun’s energy and store it in complexorganic compounds eg: green plants, algae etc.b) Chemoautotrophs produces complex organic compounds byoxidizing reducing inorganic substances. Eg: bacteria ii)Heterotrophs(consumers)these organisms cannotproduce their own food. a) Macro consumers: Theyfeed on organisms or particulate organic matter.Eg.
Herbivores, carnivores,omnivores.b) Micro consumers or decomposers: They feed on dead anddecaying matter eg: bacteria and fungi 2. Suggest measures for conservation andmanagement of natural resources.
Ans: Natural resource management denotes tothe management of natural resources such as land, water, earth, plants andanimals, with a specific attention on how management affects the value of lifefor both existing and upcoming generations. Needfor Conservation of Natural Resourcesü topreserve ecological equilibrium for supporting life.ü toreserve different kinds of species (biodiversity).
ü tomake the resources accessible for present and upcoming generations.ü tosafeguard the existence of human race. Measuresof Conservation of natural Resources:1.Conservation of energy:a. Switch off lights, fans and other appliances when notin use.b.
Use solar stove for cooking your food on bright days,which will cut down your LPG costs.c. Cultivate trees near the households to get a cool gustand shade, this will cut off your current charges on air conditioners andcoolers.
2.Conservation of water:a. Use minimum quantity of water for all internalpurposes.
b. Check for water leakages in pipes and repair thempunctually.c. Reuse the foam-covered water, after washing clothes,for washing off the yards, drive ways, etc.d. Built rainwater collecting system in your households. 3.Conservation of soil:a.
Grow different types of plants, herbs, trees in your patchand open zones, which fixes the soil and avoids erosion. b. Don’t use extra manure and insecticides.d. While building the house don’t displace the trees asfar as possible.e. Use assorted cropping, so that some definite soilnutrients will not get exhausted.
4.Conservation of food resources:a. Don’t waste the food instead gives it to someone whodesires it.b. Cook only essential quantity of food. 5.Conservation of timberland:a.
Use non-timber goods.b. Plant extra trees and guard them.c. Over grassing must be measured.d.
Diminish the use of papers and firewood.