Tanzania has the population of51.6 million; about 70% of this population lives in rural area and engagethemselves in agriculture production and livestock keeping activities. Theygrow seasonal crops food crops, fruits as well as cash crops.
Most of theseasonal crops are planted during the raining season and harvested in dryseason while few of them practice irrigation agriculture. For the year with lowrainfall, farmers get less harvest hence need to buy food for their familywhile when rainfall is normal, they get more harvest. Moreover, they grownon-seasonal crops like cassava, cash nut, banana as well as fruits likeoranges, mangoes and others. Duringharvesting period, the surplus food crops, fruits and cash crops would be sold in raw due to lack of storagefacilities and value addition machinery because of lack of electricity. Forexample, coastal part of Tanzania is famous for the production of oranges. Thesituation in several markets during the oranges harvesting is as seen in the figure5.
Therefore,this lack of electricity in rural areas has caused poverty and also educationstandard declining time to time as competent educators are not interested tostay. This fact has forced young generation to migrate from their rural area tourban leaving their community with no human resource to perform economicalactivities (farming and livestock keeping). Therefore, women and youthin rural areas have to be empowered through effective participation in themanagement of their own social, economic and environmental by establishingtheir own organizations such as local cooperatives and by applying thebottom-up approach. Electrification of ruralareas has to be done to stimulate income generation activities and valueaddition as well.
Integration of rural areaswith neighbouring urban areas for the creation of rural off-farm employment cannarrow down the migration of youth from rural to urban as well as expandopportunities and also encourage the retention of skilled people, including youth,in rural areas. Rural area has considerableincome generation activities such as agro farming, agro-processing, buildingrural infrastructure, sustainable management of natural resources, waste andresidues. Rural communities in developing countries are still faced withchallenges related to access to basic services, economic opportunities and somedegree of incoherence with regard to planning related to rural-urban divide.Investments in environmental protection, rural infrastructure and in ruralhealth and education are critical to sustainable ruraldevelopment and can enhance national well-being.
Beyond meeting basicneeds, investments must be linked to the potential to raise productivity andincome. The vulnerabilities of the rural poor to the economic and financialcrisis and to climate change and water shortage must be addressed. The successof sustainable rural development depends on, inter alia, developingand implementing comprehensive strategies for dealing with climate change,drought, desertification and natural disaster