Tanzania they grow non-seasonal crops like cassava, cash nut,

Tanzania has the population of
51.6 million; about 70% of this population lives in rural area and engage
themselves in agriculture production and livestock keeping activities. They
grow seasonal crops food crops, fruits as well as cash crops. Most of the
seasonal crops are planted during the raining season and harvested in dry
season while few of them practice irrigation agriculture. For the year with low
rainfall, farmers get less harvest hence need to buy food for their family
while when rainfall is normal, they get more harvest. Moreover, they grow
non-seasonal crops like cassava, cash nut, banana as well as fruits like
oranges, mangoes and others.  During
harvesting period, the surplus food crops, fruits and cash crops   would be sold in raw due to lack of storage
facilities and value addition machinery because of lack of electricity. For
example, coastal part of Tanzania is famous for the production of oranges. The
situation in several markets during the oranges harvesting is as seen in the figure
this lack of electricity in rural areas has caused poverty and also education
standard declining time to time as competent educators are not interested to
stay. This fact has forced young generation to migrate from their rural area to
urban leaving their community with no human resource to perform economical
activities (farming and livestock keeping).

Therefore, women and youth
in rural areas have to be empowered through effective participation in the
management of their own social, economic and environmental by establishing
their own organizations such as local cooperatives and by applying the
bottom-up approach.

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Electrification of rural
areas has to be done to stimulate income generation activities and value
addition as well.

Integration of rural areas
with neighbouring urban areas for the creation of rural off-farm employment can
narrow down the migration of youth from rural to urban as well as expand
opportunities and also encourage the retention of skilled people, including youth,
in rural areas.


Rural area has considerable
income generation activities such as agro farming, agro-processing, building
rural infrastructure, sustainable management of natural resources, waste and

Rural communities in developing countries are still faced with
challenges related to access to basic services, economic opportunities and some
degree of incoherence with regard to planning related to rural-urban divide.
Investments in environmental protection, rural infrastructure and in rural
health and education are critical to sustainable rural
development and can enhance national well-being. Beyond meeting basic
needs, investments must be linked to the potential to raise productivity and
income. The vulnerabilities of the rural poor to the economic and financial
crisis and to climate change and water shortage must be addressed. The success
of sustainable rural development depends on, inter alia, developing
and implementing comprehensive strategies for dealing with climate change,
drought, desertification and natural disaster