The all the household chores as an unpaid labor.

The Indian women are
subordinated in this patriarchal male dominated society. Women are being treated
as a domestic slave since they are subordinated to their men. The main reason
behind this treatment of women is to subjugate them under the patriarchal
dominance and utilize them whenever needed. Women tend to have minor role in
this male dominated society and are not allowed to express their own views and
ideas. The role possessed by women is to please their men and do all the
household chores as an unpaid labor. The research brings out how the female
characters are subordinated in the patriarchal society with reference to
ManjuKapur’s “Difficult Daughters”. As a feminist writer, ManjuKapur’s novels
raise strong protest against the male dominated Indian society. She took a
whole eight year to finish this book and has won the Common Wealth Writers’
Prize for the year 1999. In this paper an effort is made to analyze the
sufferings of the three generation women Kasturi, Virmati and Ida.

First to start with
Kasturi who gives birth to eleven children which makes her health completely deteriorates.
She follows the ancient rules and accepts the patriarchal dominance and she
cannot reject giving multiple births. Then secondly Virmati, who becomes second
mother to her siblings and is burdened with all the responsibilities of
household work. Harish, Virmathi’s husband is represented of the patriarchal
society. His dominant role oppresses Virmathi who compels her to abort their
baby. The last one to join is Ida, who is once again a prey to the burden of
patriarchal expectation. Virmathi shows her disappointment on Ida and tells her
to live to her father’s expectation. Virmathi who breaks the rule when asked by
Kasturi, forces Ida to do the same. The unequal and oppressed role of women can
be observed in all the three female characters that undergo a loveless life
through their mother and dominant life throughout their life by their husband.

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