The Chernobyl (Ukraine, 1986) and the Fukushima (Japan, 2011)accidents have been rated on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) as a “Major Accident”as INES 7.The Chernobyl nuclear disaster struck on 26 April 1986 during aroutine technological investigation in Unit 4 of the Nuclear Power Plant (Steinhauser, G., Brandl, A., & Johnson, T. E., 2014). Malfunctioning of the reactor in theoperation resulted in the “xenon-poisoning” which the reactor staff failedto point out, thereby causing inappropriate operation of the control rod in the reactor (Grishanin, 2010).
According to (Michel, R., Voigt, G., 2006)the sudden power outing which wasoccasioned by operating error led to the destruction of the RBMK-1000 reactorwhich at the end caused some blast-off of the graphite moderators.The Fukushimanuclear disaster occurred in March 2011.
It was caused by the earth quake that hit Japan. The tsunami, went as high as14m at the plant site. Of the six reactors, three (Units 1, 2, and 3) were running, at the timeof the earthquake, but the first seismic signals of theearthquake triggered an automatic shutdown of these reactors.The so called “safe zone” was a thirty kilometer radius around the nuclear power plant.
About 116000 people within the “safe zone” were estimated to havebeen evacuated to area that was notheavily polluted few months after the accident. After the disaster rescue of people started from 3–11 days , which for someof the affected persons, it was already late (Prohl, G., Muck, K.
, Likhtarev, I., Kovgan, L., Golikov, V., 2002). The safe zone wasextended and covered 4300 km2 in 1996, so as to control the areas with the maximum radiation levels (Steinhauser, G., Brandl, A.
, & Johnson, T. E., 2014). In theFukushima accident, over 80% of the atmospherically-released radionuclide wereanticipated to have gone offshore followed by deposition in the Pacific Ocean (Kawamura, H., Kobayashi, T.
, Furuno, A., In, T., Ishikawa, Y., Nakayama, T.
& Awaji, T., 2011). According to (Buesseler, K. O., Jayne, S. R.
, Fisher, N. S., Rypina, I. I., Baumann, H., Baumann, Z., .
.. & Miyamoto, H., 2012; Madigan, D.
J., Baumann, Z., & Fisher, N. S., 2012)radionuclide from Fukushima were found in seawater and marine organismsthroughout the Pacific.According to (Behrens, E.
, Schwarzkopf, F. U., Lübbecke, J. F.
, & Böning, C. W., 2012) the impact from the radionuclide inother countries apart from Japan seemminima, because the ocean was quick toneutralize it.There was high contamination outside the safe zone because Chernobyl is in theheart of Europe (Steinhauser, G., Brandl, A.
, & Johnson, T. E., 2014).