The are structured as follows: “Level 1, a universal

positive parenting program or Triple P for short is was developed at the
university of Queensland located in Brisbane Australia (Sanders, 1999).
Triple-P is a form of behavioral family intervention based on social learning
principles. This approach to the treatment and prevention of childhood
disorders has the strongest empirical support of any intervention with
children, particularly those with conduct problems (Sanders, 1999). The
programs aims to (a) enhance the knowledge, self-sufficiency, and
resourcefulness of  parents of
preadolescent children; (b) healthy and low conflict environments for children;
(c) promote children’s social, emotional, language, intellectual, and
behavioral development through positive parenting practices(Sanders, 1999).  The program also draws on the Social learning models of parent-child
interaction that highlight the reciprocal and bidirectional nature of
parent-child interactions identifies learning mechanisms, which maintain
dysfunctional patterns of family interaction and predicts antisocial behavior
in children (Sanders, 1999). As a consequence the program specifically teaches
parents positive child management skills as an alternative to coercive
parenting practices (Sanders, 1999).


program has five levels of intervention that are on a continuum of increasing
strength that is designed for parents of children zero to age twelve (Sanders,
1999).  The levels are structured as
follows: “Level 1, a universal parent information strategy, provides all
interested parents with access to useful information about parenting through a
coordinated media and promotional campaign using print and electronic media, as
well as user friendly parenting tip sheets and videotapes which demonstrate
specific parenting strategies(Sanders, 1999).” This level of intervention aims
to increase community awareness of parenting resources, receptivity of parents
to participating in programs, and to create a sense of optimism by depicting
solutions to common behavioral and developmental concerns (Sanders, 1999).  “Level 2 is a brief, one- to two-session,
primary health care intervention providing early anticipatory developmental
guidance to parents of children with mild behavior difficulties (Sanders,
1999).” ” Level 3, a four-session intervention, targets children with mild to
moderate behavior difficulties and includes active skills training for parents
(Sanders, 1999).” “Level 4 is an intensive eight- to ten sessions individual or
group parent training program for children with more severe behavioral
difficulties and Level 5 is an enhanced behavioral family intervention program
for families where parenting difficulties are complicated by other sources of
family distress (Sanders, 1999).” The reason for this multilevel strategy is
that there are differing levels of dysfunction and behavioral issues in each
family. The tiered system also serves to maximize efficiency and to ensure the
program has a wide reach in the community, contain cost, avoid waste, and over servicing
(Sanders, 1999). Also the multidisciplinary nature of the program involves the
better utilization of the existing professional work force in the task of
promoting competent parenting (Sanders, 1999). Triple P aims to enhance family
protective factors and to reduce risk factors associated with severe behavioral
and emotional problems in preadolescent children (Sanders, 1999). A 2008 study
found that the multilevel intervention of triple P promoted short- and
long-term positive outcomes for children and parents after divorce suggesting that
currently Triple P remains effective despite no changes to the intervention
have been implemented since 1999 (Stallman & Sanders, 2007).

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and Triple P are both Evidence based treatments that though there is slight
overlap primarily contrast each other in their approach. Triple P as mentioned
is tiered intervention with five levels and parents move through the levels
only when it is deemed fit to do so (Sanders 2008). In contrast, HNC only has
two phase and parents are expected to complete both phases. The lack of
structure is a benefit that Triple P has over HNC because it allows for
clinicians to only implement as much time, energy and resources that a family
needs. Furthermore, HNC focuses on children from age three to eight. Any child
outside of that range are ruled out as possible participants. Meanwhile Tripe P
is designed for parents of children zero to twelve years old Giving Triple P a
wider range of possible participants. The wider age range is a benefit to
families but it does require that clinicians are knowledgeable on a wider range
of ages in order for interventions and given resources to be effective.

HNC is a program designed for parents and their child to participant throughout
the process. In contrast, parents can participate in Triple P without a child
during level one and most likely will include their child in some or all of the
following levels. The ability for parents to engage without children simply to
obtain parenting resources makes Triple P a preventative option for parents
which is a strength over HNC where parents can only engage once there is
already intense behavior issues.

HNC specifically addresses struggles parents have with noncompliant children.
Triple P is similar to HNC in the way that the program works to in increase
parental knowledge and address behavior issues within families however it
differs by not specifying that children need to be considered non-compliant.
This allows for Triple P to support a larger variety of families.

 The two interventions diverge when it comes to
who can implement them as well.  HNC is
described as being implemented by a therapist Triple P, can be implemented by
various professionals such as nurses,
family doctors, pediatricians, teachers, social workers, psychologists,
psychiatrists, and police officers, to name a few (Sanders, 1999).  This in theory allows for Triple P to be more
accessible to more families since more professionals can be trained to
implement it. It also opens up for the opportunity for families to receive
intervention from professionals they already know and trust versus a new
therapist where they must build rapport with. HNC also is conducted in a
structured environment families are expected to come to in order to engage with
the therapist to learn and improve skills. Triple P however, can be conducted face-to-face
group, over the phone, or self-directed, or a combination of all these options
(Sanders, 1999). This flexibility enables parents to participate in ways that
suit their individual circumstance (Sanders, 1999). HNC also within its very
structured approach has an objective to teach parents how to attend, rewards,
ignore and timeout and how to implement them effectively. In contrast, within
Triple P it is stated that when applicable family interventions will be given
but it does not specify that specially timeout, attends, rewards, or ignore
will be used. This is because unlike HNC Triple P addresses the unique needs of
each family which does not rule out families being taught these methods, but
open the door to other methods they can be taught to implement at home.

all Triple P is a strong evidence based intervention that fills the gaps that
presented by HNC. I feel as though with the success of Triple P, it would be
beneficial to broaden the criteria for participants in terms of age range.
Currently, parents can seek this intervention for children zero to age twelve. It
would be interesting to see how Triple P could be adapted for teenagers
thirteen to eighteen years old. Parents still need support and resources for
their teens and their populations is often forgotten with evidence based
treatments. Furthermore Triple P has a similar struggle that most EBTS have
where it is hard to spread its implementation. I think the best way to address
this is to get more professionals trained in Triple P (Sanders, 2002). It boast
the potential for any practitioner to be trained by partnering with
institutions such as hospitals.