The coordinator between all other body systems. The nervous

            The nervous
system is the body’s main communicator and coordinator between all other body
systems. The nervous system is complex and includes two major parts: the
central nervous system (CNS; the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral
nervous system (PNS; the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and autonomic nervous
system). Both systems transmit electrical and chemical impulses control motor,
sensory, autonomic, cognitive, and behavioral activities (Hinkle & Cheever,
2014). The structural unit that comprises the nervous system is the neuron,
which consists of dendrites, a cell body, and an axon. Neurons communicate with
each other by conducting action potentials via a sodium-potassium pump at the
synapse causing a depolarization and repolarization of the nerve membrane. Neurons
cannot communicate with glands and muscles electrically and therefore rely on
neurotransmitters to conduct a specific response (Karch, 2017).

are highly specific chemicals that can excite or inhibit muscles and glands
causing various physiological changes in the body. When transmitted across a
synapse a neurotransmitter will find its specific receptor site and cause a
specific reaction. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is found in both
the central and peripheral nervous system. Acetylcholine has two specific types
of receptors: muscarinic and nicotinic. Within the nicotinic receptor there are
two subclasses, the neuronal type and muscle type (Halbach & Dermietzel,
2005). A muscle contraction will occur when an action potential reaches the
neuromuscular junction, releases acetylcholine (from the presynaapse cortex) and
it binds to a nicotinic receptor and allows ions to flow into muscle cells. Following
depolarization, it disassociates from the receptor and is rapidly hydrolyzed by
acetylcholinesterase.  Making drugs that
have similar structures to acetylcholine can allow for intentional manipulation
of muscle functions. 

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