The cell cycle is a series of events in a cell that leads to its division and duplication of its DNA to produce two daughter cells. The cell cycle is divided into two main phases: interphase and mitosis. Interphase is mainly where the cell grows, and the DNA replicates for division. The Interphase stage includes three distinctive parts. These include the G1 phase, the S phase, and the G2 phase. During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and begins DNA Synthesis. Before a cell begins DNA replication, it must make sure that it is ready to carry on with the process. A cell would stop at the G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point, to check for the following things:Size – Is it big or small enough to divide,Nutrition – Does it have the correct nutrients and enough energy to divide,Damage – Is the DNA damaged and not ready for division.However, if the cell passes the checkpoint and enters the S phase then, it is committed to the cell division. If there is no problem, then it carries on through the cycle and produces two daughter cells. During the S phase, the DNA replicates as it’s already been checked at the G1 checkpoint. Each chromosome must be properly replicated with accuracy. During the process, each chromosome is copied so at the end of the process there will be two DNA molecules.The final stage of interphase is the G2 phase. During this stage, the cell prepares for mitosis. Proteins organise themselves to forms series of fibres called the spindle. The spindle is constructed by a protein called amino acids. This is for each mitosis however taken apart at the end of the process. To make sure everything is correctly done so far, there is the G2 checkpoint. This checks for DNA damage and replication completeness. The checkpoint ensures that it produces two healthy daughter cells and not damaged ones. It also makes sure that the DNA replicated during the S phase was done properly. If an error is detected then the cycle will pause and the damage will be repaired. However, if the damage cannot be repaired then it will be signalled or programmed cell death. This ensures that the damaged DNA is not passed on to the daughter cells and it is important in preventing cancer. The second part of the cell cycle is mitosis. Mitosis is when the replicated chromosomes are separated into two nuclei. It is split into four subsections. They include prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Mitosis begins with the condensing of the chromatin to form chromosomes in the phase called prophase. There are two copies of each chromosome exist. Each copy is classified as a chromatid. The replicated chromosomes have an X shape They are called sister chromatids. The sister chromatids are pairs of identical copies of DNA joined at a point called the centromere. Then, a structure called the mitotic spindle begins to form. The mitotic spindle is made of long proteins called microtubules that begin forming at opposite ends of the cell. The spindle will be responsible for separating the sister chromatids into two cells.
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