The theory of EvolutionOne of the most known scientist that had a theory of Evolution was Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Darwin was a scientist that, on a trip by boat, came across the Galápagos islands.
The Galápagos Islands is an island group about 1000 km from the west coast of South America. Charles discovered that the animals on the islands didn’t resemble the animals in the rest of the world, but they also were different from each other depending on which island you were on. This was one of the proofs that his theory of evolution is correct.
He believed that all life came from one organism and that it’s natural selection that decides if the creature/organism lives. Basically, he believed that nature chooses who lives or dies depending on who’s more likely to survive based on their traits and power to adapt to nature.That means that it’s not always the bigger or stronger that survives.If an animal is lucky enough to survive they pass those traits down to their kids and so on.Because of that the world can evolve, for example, if one organism/animal gets a trait no one else has, that can help them evolve and that trait may be passed down to other generations where the trait can evolve even more and after maybe 1 million years that same species can have wings when in the beginning they didn’t have those at all.
All of this happens so that the organism/animal can survive better.An example of that is the penguin. The penguin can’t fly with its wings but it can swim with them. In the beginning, the penguin probably had regular wings, but when they came to the Antarctic the food was in the water so they didn’t need the regular wings, that’s why the wings changed each generation and now the feathers on their wings are really small and they are great swimmers.
On the Galápagos Islands, the tortoises and the finches all look different depending on which island you’re on. It’s because they have adapted to their environment which can alter island to island, and this was Darwin’s proof that his theory of evolution was close to correct. His theory was then based on how the shells on the tortoises and how the beaks of the finches looked.
He came to the conclusion that the shells of the tortoises were different based on what plants were on the Island. The finches beaks were also different depending on what food there was.*Not my words*DNADNA is also known as deoxyribonucleic acid, and is a molecule that holds the instructions to what an organism needs to function, we get these from our parents. Dna can be found in the nucleus *(a central organelle and contains most of the cells dna)* and is spread throughout the 46 chromosomes. You inherit 23 chromosomes from each parent.
You can only have 46 if you have 47 chromosomes it’s called down syndrome (I think, or its if you have 45).The dna is made out of 4 nitrogen bases: A-adenine, T-thymine , G-guanine and C-cytosine.