The handled 61.3 million passengers in 2015, making it

main public transport of Istanbul is east-west direction, connecting 2 airports
in the edge of the city and one airport in the middle of the city. On every
main roads, there are several north-south direction roads connecting with the
main functional zones such as industrial zones and commercial zones.


the major economic activities take place in its European part, the CBD of
Istanbul located in the west bank of Bosphorus strait, surrounded by arterial
traffic, which strengthens the status of 
the CBD.

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as the
transcontinental city of Eurasia, a key project — the construction of
Bosphorus Bridge and its beltways initiated a new reconstructing process in the
urban space of the city, which not only link 2 continents more tightly, but
also drive the urban form of Istanbul from a monocentric structure to a polycentric
structure. In the recent years, the land use of CBD have became insufficient
for new demand of several functions such as residence and commercial. These new
functions are distributed in newly developing business district called
Levent-Maslak where there is sufficient land and lower land price. The
extension of the CBD along Mecidiyeköy, Gayrettepe and Büyükdere began to
specialize in insurance companies as a location for the central offices of
foreign banks, large holding and multinational companies.


To meet the demand of the
travel and freight transport for huge amount of population and cargo, Istanbul
has two international airports. The larger is Istanbul Ataturk, 24 km west of
the city center. It handled 61.3 million passengers in 2015, making it the third
busiest airport in Europe. Sabiha Gokcen International, 45 km southeast of the
city center, opened in 2001 to relieve the pressure of Atatürk. Because of the
traffic at Istanbul’s current airports, a third international airport is
planned for the Black Sea coast. Building a new runway at Atatürk Airport was
rejected due to the cost involved, environmental concerns have also been raised
with respect to the new airport. Currently under construction, the new airport
will become the largest airport in the world upon the completion of all four
stages of the project, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers per


With a convenient external
traffic supported by harbours and airports, the industry zones concentrate in
the main transportation junctions. Most of the industrial zones are distributed
in suburb areas, however, there are still some of them located near the
downtown, which brings hidden danger to the living environment.


Urban planning

Large scale: The main problem that is perplexing
Istanbul is the congestion. Istanbul is identified as the worst congested city in the
world. Led by a car-oriented planning, vehicles are literally everywhere from
the small back streets to the wide urban arterials that cut through the city.
However, there are not enough traffic lights or crosswalks for pedestrian and