The third day in quartan malaria (caused by P.

The name malaria was exposed in the 17th
century by Dr. Francisco Torti. The name of the disease comes from the Italian
word malaria, meaning “bad air”. Malaria occurs mostly in poor,
tropical and subtropical areas of the world. 
Malaria in an
individual is an illness or disease that is due to parasites in the
blood or tissues.1 It
is one of the most important infectious diseases in the World.2 Its aetiological
agents are protozoans of the genus Plasmodium.3 The parasite causes human malaria, when it is passed
from one human to another by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito.
The clinical hallmark of malaria is periodic fever. Typically it recurs every second
day in tertian malaria (caused by Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, or
P. ovale) and every third day in
quartan malaria (caused by P. malariae).4 In one of the four Vedas
of the Hindus, malaria is referred to as “a most dreaded affliction, the ‘King
of diseases’. The current link between mosquitoes and malaria was first proved
and accepted in allopathy in the late 19th century when Sir Ronald Ross found a
developing form of the parasite in the body of a mosquito.5 The presence of parasites of any stage, in any part of
the human body indicates the presence of malarial infection, which may or may not be causing disease.1 In
some local classification systems, the term ‘malaria’ is used to describe an
illness similar in temperament with the biomedical definition of malaria.6 There are various factors
influenced by human actions and natural misfortunes like excessive rainfall,
flood, drought and other disasters have great bearing on mosquitogenic
conditions leading to increased potential for malaria transmission.7

There are 422 known species distributed around the world but only about
70 species are vectors of malaria under natural conditions. These species vary
considerably in their ability to transmit malaria.8 There are too many compounds having anti
malarial property and already isolated from various plant’s parts are exist in
market but some parasite species built up resistance power to some extent.
Therefore elucidating anti malarial drug resistance mechanisms at a molecular
level is urgently required. Quinine and three other alkaloids with
significant antimalarial activity, quinidine, cinchonine have been isolated
from Cinchona trees (Fig.1). These
are well known drugs used as remedy for malaria.

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