The following essay will be classifying
the key features of oral anatomy and physiology from the aspect of biomedical
sciences that effect dental appliance design. This essay will also be covering
the scientific principles and application of decontamination, disinfection and
It is vital for dental
technicians to understand anatomy this is due to the dental technician being
part of a dental team, therefore they need to know anatomy so that they can
communicate between all dental professions. Anatomy is a way of identifying
structure and shape of body organs and their relative locations within the
position is referred to the position of a structure in the body in relation to another
structure in the body. The anatomical position of the body should be upright
with the face facing forward, the arms should be at the side with the palms
facing forward also the feet should also face forward as well.
The medial plane is a vertical
plane, this plane will split down the middle to make the right and left halves. The sagittal plane is parallel to the median.
The frontal plane is a vertical plane that is right angled to the median plane.
Transverse plane is a horizontal plane through the body. Furthermore when referring the
planes to the the body as a whole, the superior is colser to the head of the
body, the inferior is away fron the head and closer to the soles of the feet,
the anterior is the front of the body, the posterior is the back of the body,
the medial will be closer to the medline of the body , the lateral is further away
from the median plane, the mesial is closer to the trunk of the body and the
distal is further from the trunk of the body.
Cells is the basic structure of all living organsims, cell
take in nutrients from food then convey vital functions. Cells also offer
structure for the body, they are grouped together to form tissues however it
then groups together to form organs like the heart and brain. The types of
cells include the red and white blood cell. The red blood cell transports
oxygen round the body and there are two main kinds of white blood cells these
include lympocytes and leucocytes. Lymphocytes is a defence mechanism for or
body.Lymphocytes create a protein antibody to fight antigens that enter the
body. Leucotyes fight disease and infections that enter our body.
The structure of the cells includes the cell membrane or
plasma membrane, nucleus and organelles. The plasma membrane encloses
protoplasm, it also lets movement through it via osmosis and diffusion. The
nucleus has chromosomes that contain DNA which is organised into genes, this
will then control the actions of the cell.
An example of an organelle is endoplasmic reticlum, the endoplasmic
reticulum is a system of compressed membrane bounded sacs, it can be rough or
smooth, the rough transports protiens in the cell while the smooth is the site
of lipid synthesis. Other organelles include ribosomes, mitrochondria, golgi
apparatus. Lysosome and mocrobodies.
Body tissues are a way of describing how the human body group
cells together according to there specific structure and functions. Tissues
make up the organs and other parts of the body. The four types of fundemental
tissues are epithelium tissue ,connective tissue ,nervous tissue and muscle
tissue. The connective tissue provides the body with support and framework for
organs by binding the structures together. Connective tissue help repair tissue
dammage, they help transport sunstances and stores fat. Its key functions are
to attach the tissues together. Connective tissues defend the body against
pathogens and to also protect the organs. The connective tissue also connects
blood to the body systems together, therefore this will bring the needed
substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients, it will also remove
the wastes. The nervous tissue is made up of nerve cells that are packed
together, these nerve cells are called neurones. Neurones are the the main
functions of the nervous system, it transmits electrical impulses between
receptors and effectors. The nerves are composed of motor neurons and sensory
neurons. The motor neurons transmit signals from the centeral nervous system to
the effectors where as the sensory neurons transmit signals from the receptors
to the spinal cord and the brain.
The mains functions for bones in the body is to support,
protect and to allow the body to move freely and for blood cell production.
There are two types of bones, compact and cancellous. Compact is dense whilse
cancellous is spongy.
Joints are formed when two bones meet together. Fixed joined
are joined together by thick fibrous tissue between the bones, they allow a slight
movement. Examples of fixed joints are sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses. Cartilage
joints move more between the bones than they do on a fixed joint, examples
include synchondroses and symphyses. However synovial joints move more freely
as synovial joints have ligamnets that hold the bones togther that stop it from
dislocating. Examples of synovial joints are the elbow, kneww and ankle.
The human body is very complex and has many systems, some of
the systems include the circulatory system, nervous system, muscular sysytem and lymphatic system.
The circulatory systems involves the blood, heart and blood
vessels, the function of circulatory system is to transport oxygen from the
lungs to the tissue, also to transport carbon dioxide from the tissues to the
lungs, it also transports nutrients from the canal to the tissues. Furthermore
the circulatory system transports antibodies to where there is infection.
The nervous system consists of
nerve cells within the body, it is a system that organises the activties of
each muscle, it also observers the organs within the body, it also carrys
messages from our brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. The
nerveous sytem involves two main parts, the centeral nervous system (CNS) and
the peripheral nervous systems. The CNS The
nervous system creates a response by
processing the data that is received from our senses, this will reuslt in the
nervouse system forming a response as it takes information through the senses,
then observes the information which will lead to a reaction being activated For example , when you touch a hot pan, you
would pull your hand back relly fast as this is due to the nerves sending
signals of pain to the brain.
Th respiratory system is passages that connect the lungs to
the external of the body by the nose and mouth, the function of the respiratoey
system is to transport air into the lungs and to enable the diffusion of oxygen
into the blood stream. The respiratory system also obtains waste carbon dioxide
from the blood then it wil get rid of it by breathing it out.
The skull contains two parts cranium and facial skeleton. The cranium contains of the cranial vault and
base. The facial skelton contains the bones of the jaw, pa;ate, nose and the
cheeckbones. There are eight cranial bones, they are combined together by
joints called sutures. The cranial bones let the blood vessels and nerves to
pass to and from the brain this is due to the openings through the bones. The
bones of the cranium is the frontal bone, parietal bone (2 bones), occipital
bone, temporal bone (2 bones) , sphenoid bone and ethmoid bone. There are
fourteen facial bones, these are; Nasal (2 bones ), Lacrimal(2 bones ),Palatine
(2 bones ),Inferior nasal concha (2 bones ), Zygomatic (2 bones), Maxilla(2
bones), Mandible and Vomer.
The musculature that is related with the oral cavity is
Orbicularis oris, Zygomaticus, Mentalis, Canius, Levator labii superioris,
Depressor labii infecrioris, Risorius, Triangularis and Buccinator. The oral
cavity includes the lips, cheecks, teeth, gum, tongue. The main function of the
oral cavity is the benining process of digestion as when the oral cavity obtains
food, it begins to chew and mix it with saliva then it begins to swallow. The
tongue then delivers the different sensations of taste. The orbiicularis oris
muscle is a sphincter muscle that surrounds the mouth, it is attached to the
maxilla which is underneath the nose by maxillary labial frenum.