The following essay will be classifyingthe key features of oral anatomy and physiology from the aspect of biomedicalsciences that effect dental appliance design. This essay will also be coveringthe scientific principles and application of decontamination, disinfection andantisepsis techniques.It is vital for dentaltechnicians to understand anatomy this is due to the dental technician beingpart of a dental team, therefore they need to know anatomy so that they cancommunicate between all dental professions. Anatomy is a way of identifyingstructure and shape of body organs and their relative locations within thebody.
Anatomicalposition is referred to the position of a structure in the body in relation to anotherstructure in the body. The anatomical position of the body should be uprightwith the face facing forward, the arms should be at the side with the palmsfacing forward also the feet should also face forward as well.The medial plane is a verticalplane, this plane will split down the middle to make the right and left halves. The sagittal plane is parallel to the median.The frontal plane is a vertical plane that is right angled to the median plane.
Transverse plane is a horizontal plane through the body. Furthermore when referring theplanes to the the body as a whole, the superior is colser to the head of thebody, the inferior is away fron the head and closer to the soles of the feet,the anterior is the front of the body, the posterior is the back of the body,the medial will be closer to the medline of the body , the lateral is further awayfrom the median plane, the mesial is closer to the trunk of the body and thedistal is further from the trunk of the body.Cells is the basic structure of all living organsims, celltake in nutrients from food then convey vital functions. Cells also offerstructure for the body, they are grouped together to form tissues however itthen groups together to form organs like the heart and brain. The types ofcells include the red and white blood cell. The red blood cell transportsoxygen round the body and there are two main kinds of white blood cells theseinclude lympocytes and leucocytes. Lymphocytes is a defence mechanism for orbody.
Lymphocytes create a protein antibody to fight antigens that enter thebody. Leucotyes fight disease and infections that enter our body. The structure of the cells includes the cell membrane orplasma membrane, nucleus and organelles. The plasma membrane enclosesprotoplasm, it also lets movement through it via osmosis and diffusion. Thenucleus has chromosomes that contain DNA which is organised into genes, thiswill then control the actions of the cell. An example of an organelle is endoplasmic reticlum, the endoplasmicreticulum is a system of compressed membrane bounded sacs, it can be rough orsmooth, the rough transports protiens in the cell while the smooth is the siteof lipid synthesis.
Other organelles include ribosomes, mitrochondria, golgiapparatus. Lysosome and mocrobodies.Body tissues are a way of describing how the human body groupcells together according to there specific structure and functions.
Tissuesmake up the organs and other parts of the body. The four types of fundementaltissues are epithelium tissue ,connective tissue ,nervous tissue and muscletissue. The connective tissue provides the body with support and framework fororgans by binding the structures together. Connective tissue help repair tissuedammage, they help transport sunstances and stores fat. Its key functions areto attach the tissues together. Connective tissues defend the body againstpathogens and to also protect the organs. The connective tissue also connectsblood to the body systems together, therefore this will bring the neededsubstances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients, it will also removethe wastes.
The nervous tissue is made up of nerve cells that are packedtogether, these nerve cells are called neurones. Neurones are the the mainfunctions of the nervous system, it transmits electrical impulses betweenreceptors and effectors. The nerves are composed of motor neurons and sensoryneurons. The motor neurons transmit signals from the centeral nervous system tothe effectors where as the sensory neurons transmit signals from the receptorsto the spinal cord and the brain.The mains functions for bones in the body is to support,protect and to allow the body to move freely and for blood cell production.
There are two types of bones, compact and cancellous. Compact is dense whilsecancellous is spongy.Joints are formed when two bones meet together. Fixed joinedare joined together by thick fibrous tissue between the bones, they allow a slightmovement. Examples of fixed joints are sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses.
Cartilagejoints move more between the bones than they do on a fixed joint, examplesinclude synchondroses and symphyses. However synovial joints move more freelyas synovial joints have ligamnets that hold the bones togther that stop it fromdislocating. Examples of synovial joints are the elbow, kneww and ankle.The human body is very complex and has many systems, some ofthe systems include the circulatory system, nervous system, muscular sysytem and lymphatic system.The circulatory systems involves the blood, heart and bloodvessels, the function of circulatory system is to transport oxygen from thelungs to the tissue, also to transport carbon dioxide from the tissues to thelungs, it also transports nutrients from the canal to the tissues. Furthermorethe circulatory system transports antibodies to where there is infection.The nervous system consists ofnerve cells within the body, it is a system that organises the activties ofeach muscle, it also observers the organs within the body, it also carrysmessages from our brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. Thenerveous sytem involves two main parts, the centeral nervous system (CNS) andthe peripheral nervous systems.
The CNS Thenervous system creates a response byprocessing the data that is received from our senses, this will reuslt in thenervouse system forming a response as it takes information through the senses,then observes the information which will lead to a reaction being activated For example , when you touch a hot pan, youwould pull your hand back relly fast as this is due to the nerves sendingsignals of pain to the brain.Th respiratory system is passages that connect the lungs tothe external of the body by the nose and mouth, the function of the respiratoeysystem is to transport air into the lungs and to enable the diffusion of oxygeninto the blood stream. The respiratory system also obtains waste carbon dioxidefrom the blood then it wil get rid of it by breathing it out.The skull contains two parts cranium and facial skeleton. The cranium contains of the cranial vault andbase. The facial skelton contains the bones of the jaw, pa;ate, nose and thecheeckbones.
There are eight cranial bones, they are combined together byjoints called sutures. The cranial bones let the blood vessels and nerves topass to and from the brain this is due to the openings through the bones. Thebones of the cranium is the frontal bone, parietal bone (2 bones), occipitalbone, temporal bone (2 bones) , sphenoid bone and ethmoid bone.
There arefourteen facial bones, these are; Nasal (2 bones ), Lacrimal(2 bones ),Palatine(2 bones ),Inferior nasal concha (2 bones ), Zygomatic (2 bones), Maxilla(2bones), Mandible and Vomer.The musculature that is related with the oral cavity isOrbicularis oris, Zygomaticus, Mentalis, Canius, Levator labii superioris,Depressor labii infecrioris, Risorius, Triangularis and Buccinator. The oralcavity includes the lips, cheecks, teeth, gum, tongue. The main function of theoral cavity is the benining process of digestion as when the oral cavity obtainsfood, it begins to chew and mix it with saliva then it begins to swallow.
Thetongue then delivers the different sensations of taste. The orbiicularis orismuscle is a sphincter muscle that surrounds the mouth, it is attached to themaxilla which is underneath the nose by maxillary labial frenum.