The those physical and chemical properties that lead to

The impactof Nano-technology on recentadvances in shapeless refractories: Areview   Heidar Ali* 1Department of Materials Science, UNSW University,Australia *Corresponding Author, Tel: +989133330848, E-mail address: [email protected]      Abstract: In recent years, the use of Nano-technology (Nano-particles,Nano-material and Nano-additives) has attracted attention of scholars,engineers, and scientists in all scientific fields such as chemistry, medicine,material, agriculture, electric, and etc. The use of Nano-technology has alsobecome widespread in the refractories products (which mainly used byvarious industries suchas steel, casting, cement, glass, and etc.). So, some researchershave examined the effect of using different types and contents ofNano-materials (oxides and non-oxides) on the properties of shaped (bricks) andun-shaped (shapeless) refractoriesproducts and they have attained very interesting results.  One of the most consumable refractory goods in different industries is shapeless refractories, which has been widely used because of theirgreat advantages to the other refractories goods (bricks).

Hence, in this research, recent progresses in shapeless refractories by Nano-technology are mentioned. This article can be used as a complete reference and guidance for Scientific’s, students andartisans   for easy access to experimental research results of theimpact of Nano-technology on shapeless refractories. Keywords: Nano-technology, Nano particles, Refractory, shapeless                               1.    Introduction: 1.2. Nanotechnology(Introduction): The Nano-technology phrase originating fromtwo words consist of the Greek numerical prefix nano referring to a billionth and the technology word 1-2. As an outcome,Nano-technology or Nano-scaled technology is commonly considered to be at asize under 100 nm (a Nano-meter is 10-9 m) 1-2.  2.

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      Refractories: 2.1. Introduction:  According to the ASTM C 71 , the refractories are a “non-metallicmaterials having those physical and chemical properties that lead to themapplicable for structures or as components of systems that are exposed toenvironments above 1000 °F (538°C)11, 16. Also, some references mentionedthat refractories arein-organic non-metallic material which can withstand high temperature withoutchanging in their chemical or physicalproperties while remaining in contact with molten slag, metal and gases 11-13, 16-20.

As well as, according to the operating situation, they should to have high thermal shock resistant, be chemically inert, and  have definedranges of thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient 11- 21, 22. It is clear that refractories have animportant role in glassmaking, metallurgical, and ceramic industries, where they are generated into a variety of shapes to line the interiors of furnaces or kilns or other devices for processing the materials athigh temperatures 23-25. Some of the technological and scientific inventions and progresses wouldnot have been possible withoutrefractory materials.Producing 1Kg of any metal withoututilize of refractory is almost quite impracticable 26-29.The history of using refractory materials dates back to since mankind start to develop metallurgical process. Thefirstrefractor raw material was clay. Up to the nineteenth century, refractory products were made of natural ores, such asmagnesite, dolomite stones and clay.

itwas at the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of nineteenth centurythat the basis of modern metal beneficiation, the development of Portlandcement and of modern glass processes started to inflict higher requirements to the refractoryindustry 30-33. The mainmaterials used in theproducing ofrefractories are basedto Fig.1 34-36. In recent years, with the changing trends in steelmaking, thehigh performing shaped refractories areon an increasing demand. Thehigher campaign lives and the mutabilityof the newer steelmaking operations are decided by the accessibilityand performance of such shapedrefractories with superior high-temperature mechanical strength, erosion and corrosion resistance the selection of refractories to be utilized is often according to the conditions dominating in the application zone 36-40.