The tiny gaps, between neurons interferes with the transmission

The brain is the most complex and
critical organ in the body. It controls every action, movement, and thought of
humans (Herzog 12). “Brain chemicals communicate with all organ systems. There
is no separating the brain and the body – what affects the body affects your
brain” (Dahia 29). When someone has borderline personality disorder,
depression, or any other neurological disability, many scientists have characterized
it immediately as an imbalance in the brain. (Bailey 42). Is it really the
chemicals that need balancing? (Bailey 42).

“Research shows that psychiatric
disorders may be related to an imbalance of natural chemicals between nerve
cells and the brain. … The general idea is that a deficiency of certain
neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) at synapses, or tiny gaps, between neurons
interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses, causing or contributing to
depression” (Arkowitz 66)

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or other neurological disorders. “Acetylcholine
(nicotine-related), dopamine (emotion), and norepinephrine (depression) can act
to stimulate or depress brain function” (Publishers Weekly 121). If brain
chemicals are either increased or decreased by proteins modifying their
production, it can be considered to be a neurological imbalance (American Friends
of Tel Aviv University).

Neurotransmitters are the brain
chemicals that are in constant movement to communicate information throughout
our brain between neurons. If any type of miscommunication occurs, it creates
an unbalanced charge, also known as an action potential. Across the cell
membrane, the concentration of ions (atoms or molecules with unbalanced charges)
cause action potential (U.S. National Library of Medicine). It is said that
neurotransmitter receptors are involved with the main causes of depression
(Richelson 18). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps to control mood,
appetite, and sleep, and is lower in people with depression. Medications to
elevate serotonin levels act by blocking the reuptake (reabsorption of a
secreted substance by the nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted)
of serotonin by the neuron being sent (Richelson 19).

Another chemical that plays a
role in the potential of imbalances is dopamine. Dopamine controls the constant
flow of psychological information to the front of the brain. Emotion and
thought is controlled in the front of the brain; therefore, scientists suggest
that a lack of dopamine can be a sign of mental illnesses like schizophrenia
and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Gruber 863).

The neurotransmitter that is
proven to be the most common in the human brain is glutamate. Unlike the
others, glutamate has uses throughout the entire brain and nervous system. As a
crucial role during early brain development, glutamate is a major excitatory
transmitter (Yudkoff 227). Along with adolescent development, it also assists
in learning and memory. Problems in using glutamate are responsible for mental
disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, autism, and
schizophrenia (National Institute of Mental Health).

Fear is inevitable, though how
does it occur? The amygdala transmitter is a strong component in the learning
of how to, or not to fear. “Between depressed and mentally healthy individuals,
particular areas of the brain differ in size. For example, the amygdala, which
responds to the emotional significance of events, tends to be smaller in
depressed people than in those without the disorders” (Arkowitz 67). Anxiety
disorders, like phobias, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are caused
by size differences of the brain’s amygdala. “Recent studies suggest that that
longstanding findings of abnormal amygdala morphology in autism spectrum
disorder (ASD) may be related to symptoms of anxiety” (Herrington 3683). The
Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorder is an up and coming informative
text to be released in late 2017. For this journal, fifty-three children with
ASD underwent structural MRIs to compare their anxiety levels. Based on their
neurological structure, while considering age and intellectual level, the ASD
and anxiety group showed decreased amygdala volume compared to the ASD without
anxiety group (Herrington 3684). The smaller the amygdala (almond-shape set of
neurons), the higher the chance of acquiring anxiety, PTSD, or other fear
related mental issues (Herrington 3689).

calcium and magnesium ions that are a part of your brain cells change during
sleep and wakefulness, but scientists also believed neurons initiated those
changes. “Psychiatric disorders and sleep relate in important ways” (US
National Library of Medicine). Jerome M. Siegel organized information from
studies showing how brain neurons and neurotransmitters are engaged in the most
activity while the human or animal is awoken (Sanders). What surprises many, though,
is the fact that neurological transmission of chemicals is sustained throughout
the entire sleep cycle (Sanders). Continuing with Canada’s most common mental
illnesses, people who suffer from generalized anxiety are not proven to have
any deficiency in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (Sanders). The dimensions of
the amygdala transmitter do not transform sleep quality.  

brain region that focuses solely on creating and recalling memories is known as
the hippocampus. When damaged, it cannot create new memories for a person, yet
they will continue to remember past memories and skills (Hesman 8). The nerve
signaling protein linked to memory loss (from amnesia to dementia) goes by the
name of tomosyn (Hesman 9). This protein increases or decreases the production
of neurological chemicals used for memory. Mood disorders may occur from the
hippocampus as well, through it is in control of a major mood circuit called
the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (National Institute of Mental

to the reconstruction of neurotransmitters by their accompanied proteins,
chemicals become uneven, or as many scientists would say– imbalanced. The
human brain contains an abundance of complex chemicals and sections, each of
them with their own crucial function. An absence or modification of a chemical
found within the brain can make a life-changing difference in personality or
learning (American Friends of Tel Aviv University).