The resource I chose to read was the Tribal Consultation article on the U.S. General Services Administration website. The GSA is an independent agency of the U.S. government that was established in 1949 to help provide support and recommendations to U.S. federal agencies. Support and recommendations provided by the GSA include transportation, offices, communications and cost-effective policies for these federal agencies and employees (“General Services Administration”). I believe the perspective of this article was written in the U.S. governments’ point of view. I believe this because the first paragraph of this article states that the U.S. government’s preservation history with Native tribes mandates that federal consultation with these tribes are meaningful, in good faith and are on a government-to-government basis (“Tribal Consultation”). In my opinion, the first paragraph makes it sound like the U.S. federal government will always have the best intentions for Native American tribes and will make sure they always consult with the tribes’ government before making policy changes that may affect Native Americans. This resource mentioned three federal policies that were issued by U.S. President George W. Bush and President Bill Clinton that were meant to protect Native American tribal government and land. During his presidency, George W. Bush instated Executive Memorandum Government-Government Relationship with Tribal Governments. This executive action stated that the U.S federal government will work with federally-recognized Native American tribal governments and will respect and support tribal sovereignty and self-determination (“Tribal Consultation”). Several Executive Orders also mandate the U.S. federal government’s policies with tribal governments. In 1996, President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order 13007 Indian Sacred Sites (“Tribal Consultation”). This Executive Order was created to help protect and retain Native American religious practices. It states that if a federal agency manages a federal land then that agency must “accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Native American sacred sited by Native American religious practitioners, as well as avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of such sacred sites” (“Executive Order 13007 Indian Sacred Sites (1996)”). A second Executive Order was also issued by President Clinton in 2000; Executive Order 13175 Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments. EO 13175 acknowledges the U.S. federal government’s obligation to tribal sovereignty, self-government and self-determination. It was issued to “ensure that all Executive departments and agencies consult with Indian tribes and respect tribal sovereignty as they develop policy on issues that impact Indian communities” (“EO 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments (2000)”). Tribal consultation also refers to Native American archaeological resources, which date back to the Antiquities Act of 1906 (“Tribal Consultation”). There were several preservation laws that include Native American tribal government mentioned in this article. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) was passed in 1990 and allows Native American tribes and its descendants to be able to reposes cultural items that were held in a museum or another federal agency. These items include sacred objects, funerary objects, human remains and many more, but only if they were found on federal land after November 16, 1990 (“Tribal Consultation”). The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was passed in 1969 and states that Native American tribes are invited to an environmental review process if they will be affected (“Tribal Consultation”). By “being affected” this means that if airports, buildings, highways, military complexes or parkland purchases are being proposed than the Native American tribes that are being affected by these proposed plans, the federal government is required to call in the tribes for the review process (“Summary of the National Environmental Policy Act”). A lot of these laws and executive orders seem very good for protecting Native American culture, religion and sovereignty, but my question is how many of these laws and orders does the federal government follow and actually go by when dealing with Native American tribes throughout the United Sates?Resources”EO 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments (2000).” Department of Energy, OFFICE of NEPA POLICY and COMPLIANCE, energy.gov/nepa/downloads/eo-13175-consultation-and-coordination-indian-tribal-governments-2000.”Executive Order 13007 Indian Sacred Sites (1996).” Department of Energy, OFFICE of ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, energy.gov/em/downloads/executive-order-13007-indian-sacred-sites-1996.”General Services Administration.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Jan. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Services_Administration.”Summary of the National Environmental Policy Act.” EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, 24 Aug. 2017, www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-national-environmental-policy-act.”Tribal Consultation.” GSA, U.S. General Services Administration, 13 Aug. 2017, www.gsa.gov/node/79654.
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