The main purpose of the article is to provide basic information or an overview about the hemostasis, including the two kinds of hemostasis and fibrinolysis, as well as what can happen when some part of hemostasis does not occur correctly and how these problems can be managed. Primary hemostasis is the process where platelets become activated with the aid of molecules, particularly proteins, found on their surface binding with other molecules, and as the platelets become activated, they signal to neighboring platelets such that they become activated and can eventually aggregate and attach to the site of injury in the blood vessel. Secondary hemostasis is where thrombin is made, which helps activate platelets and helps form fibrin, a protein that forms net-like structure that helps the clot. Fibrinolysis is where fibrin is broken down, and it occurs when the injury site has healed and there is no further need for the blood clot. Fibrinolysis also helps prevent blood clots from forming in an uninjured site. Bleeding, where there is not enough clotting occurring, and thrombosis, where there is too much clotting present, are indicators of issues within the complex process of hemostasis. Thrombosis can occur in both the veins and the arteries, but there are a number of drugs that are used to help prevent the excessive clotting for both cases. Bleeding is most often thought to be due to a genetic disorder, such as Hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, or Bernard-Soulier syndrome, and can often be managed with drugs, infusions, or transfusions. The main conclusion in this article is that hemostasis is a series of complex, well-regulated processes that are susceptible to going awry and causing disease; however, it is also a process which is still undergoing research in attempts to understand it better and develop drugs and treatments for the issues that can and do occur. The key concepts to understand in this article are that hemostasis is a complex process in which primary hemostasis, where platelets become activated, aggregate, and attach to the injury site, and secondary hemostasis, where the coagulation cascade occurs, both happen at the same time and are tightly regulated. Issues within either of these processes of hemostasis can result in either thrombosis or bleeding, both of which are often treatable. The implications of the article are that hemostasis is a process that although much is known about the details and intricacies of it, further research can and should be done to learn even more about it, especially the specifics of primary and secondary hemostasis. Such attempts at furthering the research on hemostasis could lead to breakthroughs for new treatment methods for disorders stemming from hemostasis and maybe even discovering more details about the process. Before reading this article, I only had a very basic understanding of the process of hemostasis; however, after reading this review, I feel I have a slightly more in-depth understanding of the process, as well as an appreciation for hemostasis and how it occurs in the human body without needing to be consciously thinking about it.
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