This released it can become over-stimulated with increased electrical

This essay will be focusing
on midazolam, which is a type of benzodiazepine. Midazolam is an oral
medication, and in this essay it will be talked about in reference to epilepsy
and seizures. Midazolam is used to stop abrupt, long, convulsive, seizures in
infants, toddlers, children and adolescents, from the age of three months to
eighteen years. (Gosh.nhs.uk, 2017)  During a seizure there may be too much or too
little activity in the brain and when repetitive and quick signals are released
it can become over-stimulated with increased electrical activity. (Encyclopedia.com, 2017)

 

In the context of an
epileptic seizure, the midazolam is given in an oral syringe and is inserted
slowly into the buccal cavity, the space between the inside of the cheek and
the teeth. While the liquid is in the buccal cavity, it is absorbed into the bloodstream
through the rich supply of blood vessels located there. (Gosh.nhs.uk, 2017)

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This method of
administration happens by diffusing through tissues which line the mouth, also
known as a mucous membrane, called the oral mucosal. Buccal administration
provides a good amount of bioavailability, and has a more rapid effect in
comparison to oral administration because the medication should not pass
through the digestive system and thereby avoids first pass metabolism. The
dosage is usually larger in infants because part of the dose is usually
swallowed and absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract. If it is taken this way
it is less effective due to the effects of metabolism.  Oromucosal administration is followed by a
rapid absorption. After thirty minutes the minimum effective dosage is reached.
The bioavailability of an oromusocal administration of midazolam is 75%. (NCBI, 2017)

Midazolam works by acting on
receptors in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. GABA is
a neurotransmitter that has an influence on motor control, vision, and many
other cortical functions. GABA is
involved in transmitting messages between the nerve cells and acts as a natural
‘nerve-calming’ agent. It helps keep a balanced nerve activity in the brain,
and has a part to play in inducing sleepiness, reducing anxiety and relaxing
muscles in the body. (Konkel, 2017)