u documents on the system. This can be caused

u  Computer
security is the act of protecting or preventing a computer system or server
from unauthorized access. Computers nowadays are used for everything like
sending an email to securing a top classified information about a company or
workers personal details. This is why computer security is very important and
affects everyone in the industry.

u  Computer
security guards this information from strangers or people that aren’t meant to
preventing them from unwanted access. If this access isn’t prevented it allows
other users to change or reveal details or documents on the system. This can be
caused by people like hackers or other users inside the business. Because of
this, computers need to be kept secure at all times and away anything harmful
whether it is physical or software related.

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u  Physical
security is the protection of the computer and the equipment around it.
Physical security protects the computer from theft, vandalism or accidental
damage caused by natural occurrences. Computer systems can be protected
physically by the use of the following:

u  Locks

u  Visitor

u  Sign
in/out systems

u  Biometrics:
Retinal scanner, fingerprint, voice recognition

u  Security

u  Cable


u  A computer system can be protected
by locking the area around it. This protects the computer system and the
equipment around it from unauthorized use or access. This also keeps personal
items confidential because of these locks. The most common lock used in most
industries is the key card system and the traditional lock and key. The lock
and key system are used to secure doors and containers from intruders by
locking them out from the

u  However, the key card system uses
barcode or magnetic strips to open the locked are. Once the user swipes their card
on the card reader the door will open only if the card is valid. This is better
than the lock and key system because everyone has a unique barcode so the
system is aware of everyone who unlocks the door.

u  Both of these locking mechanisms
allow only certain people to access the items inside the room. These people are
the ones that have the keys or key card. This helps keep the business secure
from intruders and keeps their data safe.


u  Visitor
passes are items that are used by companies to indicate that they are visitors
and therefore should be prevented access from restricted areas. These usually
come in the form of stickers or badges and have the visitor’s details on them.
The visitor will have to stick on their clothing, because of visitor passes
other workers will know if the person is an intruder that has broken inside the
facility. Visitors are usually told to sign a Guest book so that security know
who is in the building and what times they entered and left. This is helpful
because in case there is a fire, security will know who has left and who is
still inside the offices.

u  Visitor
passes help keep out intruders because the employees will know who they are and
whether they are allowed to go inside restricted zones or not. Security will
keep an eye out for visitors to see if they are doing something that might harm
the organisation.


u  In
many institutions often use a sign in/sign out system to verify if that person
is inside the building. They are usually in the form of swipe cards that alert
the system whether you have signed out or in and are used on the main entry
doors. Each key is meant for a different person, meaning that not everyone will
have full access to every section of the building.

u  For
example, only science teachers can access the science room with their cards
because the other teachers might not know the safety precaution inside the lab.

u  This
is a very efficient way of ensuring that all parts of the business is secure
because only a selected group of people can access certain parts, providing
maximum security. Another reason why they’re so efficient is because once a
worker leaves the company, their ID can easily be disabled meaning that a
breach is easily prevented


u  Biometric
is one of the more modern ways of ensuring security is provided by using
someone’s biological information as a form of identification. Everybody has
unique features like different fingerprints or eyes, meaning that the system
cannot be tricked easily. This prevents access because only employee’s
biometrics are saved on the system. This means that intruder’s biometric data
will be rejected because they are not saved on the system.

u  This
ensures maximum security because biometrics cannot be replicated and biometric
scanners cannot be tricked. There are three types of ways organisations use
biometric data to keep their systems safe; retinal scans, fingerprint scanners
and the use of voice recognition.


u  A
way of using biometrics is by the use of retinal scanners. Retinal scanners use
the person’s retina as a form of verification. The retina is the back of the
eye which is different from everyone. Unlike other biometrics like fingerprint
that can get scarred, worn out or change due to sicknesses, the retina stays
the doesn’t and are much quicker to scan than the other methods as well.
Retinal scanners can also be used to prevent identity theft since retinas
cannot be replicated because everyone’s retina is different.

u  However,
one disadvantage is that glasses and contacts must be removed when doing a
retinal scan or the system wouldn’t be able to scan properly and therefore
might deny access.

u  Retinal
scanners are used in big organisations to prevent unauthorized access and
prevent data from being stolen by people. This is a good method of preventing
people from break into the organisations buildings


u  Fingerprint
scanners have been around for a long time and has been used for crime
detection. Fingerprint scanners is a form of biometric security that uses
someone’s fingerprint to identify it is them. The system then checks the database
to see if the fingerprint is on valid, and f it is there access is approved and
the doors unlock. However, if it isn’t the system denies access and alerts the
company that someone tried to break in.

u  Fingerprints
are a very reliable way of providing security in a company. Many devices like
mobile phones use this type of technology to ensure that people do not access
your details. A good example of a device that uses fingerprint scanning is the
IPhone 5s

u  Unlike
the retinal scanner, the finger can be damaged easily by an accident which may
cause the system not to recognise someone and could cause problems later on.

u  This
keeps a business secure because only those whose biometrics are saved onto the
system can access the building, this prevents unwanted access and protects the
organisations buildings from intrusions.


u  Voice
recognition is the use of someone’s voice as a means of unlocking or
identifying someone. Many people have different voices meaning that the system
may be able to recognise someone’s voice and give them access to the
information they are looking for.

u  Unlike
the other 2 biometric locks, this can easily be replicated by methods of
recording and playing it back to trick the system. This shows that although
this is a good way of locking information, it isn’t secure and can lead to
unauthorized access to important information.


u  A
security guard is a person who is employed to keep the premise safe from
intruders and preventing damage and chaos from being caused by outsiders. They
keep the building free from intruders and defends the organisations building
from attacks by intruders trying to steal company data.

u  Posting
a security guard in an organisations building also helps in:

u  1.
Keeping computer systems and servers safe and locked up from                           outsiders.

u  2.
Ensuring that data is kept safe by preventing strangers from                                  accessing authorised rooms.


u  Since
data is transmitted through copper cables, they can be easily read by other
people by detecting the variation of the magnetic field emitted by the cable
when data is travelling through it. This can lead to the leaking of very
important information and decreases security.

u  When
a company shields these copper wires, this not only are they shielded from
outside disturbances but they also prevent third parties from reading this
private data.

u  This
is beneficial to an organisation because they can transmit private and
confidential to other employees or outside data sources knowing that their data
will not be stolen in the process.


u  Software
security is the implementation of software to protect the organisations
computer systems and servers from attacks by malware or unauthorised access by

u  A
firewall is a program designed by companies like Microsoft to keep out hackers,
viruses and other harmful software out. A firewall is a barrier-like software
that protects the user from connecting to untrusted networks. This is because
the firewall determines what is allowed to be on the computer and what isn’t.

u  As
a result, the computer files are kept safe because the firewall prevents
unauthorised access because it determines whether it is safe enough to be on
the computer, meaning that unwanted programs will not have access to the
computer. This keeps the information on the hard drive safe and away from

u  This
is beneficial to a business because this means that not only the information
saved onto the HDD is safe, but the computer system will also be protected from
external attacks.

u  A
virus is a form of malware that infects computers and can damage hardware and
software. This harmful
software is created by someone which is used to infect someone’s computer.  A virus can delete valuable information saved
by the user. A virus can easily enter one’s system through visiting unprotected
websites or downloading applications from random unknown sources.

u   This can all be prevented by the use of an
antivirus software. An antivirus is a software designed to prevent malware from
entering the computer and it gets rid of existing ones. This keeps the data
safe from the harmful software and protects the user from visiting unsafe
websites by warning them before they enter. An example of these very useful
software’s is Kaspersky and Avast.

u  This helps the business as it keeps
the systems free from malware that can lead to the destruction of valuable
data. As a result, people can trust the business to keep their data safe.

u  Virtual
Private Networks (VPN) are networks that shield the user from the public or
their internet provider. This is done by accessing another network through the
internet. VPN’s are used to gain access to websites that have either been
restricted in the country or shield the internet providers and the public from
seeing the websites visited.

u  VPN’s
are used by business to secure their connections and from being watched by
others. This protects vital information from seen or accessed because the
computer is connected to another network over the internet meaning that they
aren’t visible to other systems. This benefits an organisation greatly because
they cannot be traced by other systems since the location of their system is

u  An
intruder detection system is a software application that checks the network the
system is connected to and scans it for malicious software like virus. This
software is designed to detects access from foreign sources to stop them and
get rid of before any serious damage is caused. This is done by looking for
common signs from previous or known attacks or abnormal activities inside the

u  This
is beneficial to a company because it alerts the system that it is under attack
and detects where the threat is coming from, therefore they can trace the
source of the external attacks and prevent it from happening again.

u  Passwords
are set by businesses in order to protect their work. Lots of websites
recommend the user to set a very strong password, this is because weak
passwords can be guessed or easily bypassed. Another tip for setting a password
is to set different ones for each account, this is because if someone manages
to get the password for one account they will have access for all account and
could cause damage to the company’s reputation.

u  A
good way of setting a strong password is the use of encryption. Encryption is
the setting data into a secret code. This means that without the secret code to
enable the user to decrypt it. Encryption is important because it allows the
user to keep data safe

u   This is good for a business because without
the secret code nobody can access the system even if they work at the location,
meaning that the system is safe either way.

u  The
IT team in a business can set a level of access of data. This is a hierarchy
where user can access a certain level of data according to their place in the
business. Lower levels of access can only access certain pieces of data and
files stored on the server. Higher class users can access and change files on
the server as well as install software and remove them at will. This hierarchy
is set using the user’s ID and position in the business. This provides maximum
security since they cannot install harmful software into the computer and keeps
confidential information safe from being deleted or altered in any way. This is
similar to how Windows lets the administrator install and delete software
whereas the other users need the administrator’s permission to do so.

u  This
is very helpful to a business because it prevents workers in the company from
accessing data that is meant to be confidential by restricting them from
accessing it. This keeps the business safe from information being leaked.

u  Operating
systems like Windows 10 receive regular updates every now and then that not
only boost computer performance, they also patch bugs and glitches in the
systems that hackers and malicious software could use to their advantages.
Hackers will try and find flaws in the system that might help them get past the
security on the system and access the information directly.

u  Updating
computer operating systems is very important, quick and easy to do because they
can enhance security and since they are free, businesses can use this to ensure
that their computers systems are up-to date with the latest software and
security features. Computers can be set to update automatically at a certain
time meaning that businesses will always have the newest software available.

u  Audit
logs are documents used by businesses that record what staff and employees have
accessed during their time on the systems. This allows the organisation to be aware
of the what websites they might have visited or what programs they might have
installed whilst they were on the system. The audit log software tracks all the
folders they have opened as well as the number of key strokes the user did.

u  By
having audit logs organisations can see what their employees open and what
website they visit. This ensures that the system is safe because the
organisation will know what they do ensuring they do not cause any harm to the

u  A
diskless network relies mainly on the server to boot the operating system and
all the files that the organisation needs. The computer hardware will only be
used to transfer data from the system to the server. Diskless networks are
cheaper because separate software and isn’t needed for each computer. They are
cost effective and the organisation can monitor everyone using the system
because they are all on one server.

u  Handshaking
is the process of 2 computer systems creating a link that can be used to send
and receive data. This is done by setting up a link by the exchanging of a
signal that tells the other computer whether or not they are ready to receive
data or not. Handshakes can be used to see the computer can establish a
reliable connection

u  This
benefits the organisation because the computer will only connect if their
connection is good enough or if the source is reliable. This means that the
computer systems are secure.

u  An
encryption is a method used to protect data by converting a piece of
information into a secret code. This is done by scrambling data into random
letters and numbers to prevent people from reading it and understanding the
code. This is similar to the lock and key mechanism because only someone with
that special code can access the data that is locked using encryption. Encryption
means that data can travel through servers, however, the organisation cannot
open them even if they wanted to. This keeps data well-kept from others reach.

u  This
keeps an organisations systems safe from unwanted access to data and it means
that only a few can open the data using their code to decrypt the data.
Encryptions can be used to prevent theft by encrypting emails, attachments and
financial transactions as well as other confidential data.

u  There
are two types of keys that are used in encrypting data, public and private
keys. Public keys are keys that are used to encrypt the data that the user has
send. This protects the data from being interfered with when transmitted.
Private keys are used by the receiver to decrypt the data that has been sent. This
means that anyone who doesn’t have the private key will receive a message with
random letters and numbers.

u  The
use of encryption is beneficial to an organisation because they can transmit
data to outside sources and can rely on encryptions public and private keys so
that nobody can access the message and leak the organisations information

u  VPNs
play a very important role in organisations because they shield the user from
the public or their internet provider. This is useful because it means that
strangers cannot access the data, therefore making them much safer for an
organisation to send and receive confidential data.

u  This
ensures that the organisations privacy needs are met and they can use the
internet freely knowing that they are being watched and are not being
restricted by the internet provider’s rules.

u  This
is a software security feature used to verify the dial-in user by calling them
back over a dial up line. Once they system call-back is done the user will need
to enter a username, password and any other essential information that is
needed to verify the person, the system will grant them access.

u  The
system will register the username and password alongside the number used to
call-back the system. This helps the organisation because they are aware of
this and can keep an eye out for any abnormal activities when the call-back
system is used.

u  A
backup system is a system that makes copies of data that is saved on the
organisations server and saves them on a separate hard drive; either locally or
in a remote location. If the data is ever lost or corrupted, the backup system
will transfer the data back to the organisations original server. Having a
backup system can save an organisation a lot of resources because the
organisation will not have to close down to repair the system, meaning that the
organisation will also save a lot of money as well.

u  This
will benefit organisations because their systems will always be up and they
have all their data saved meaning valuable and confidential data will never be lost.

u  However,
one downside to using to using a backup system is that when an organisation
chooses to use a remote location, the organisation’s systems will be down
because they will need to transfer the data back and restore them back to the
servers which could take a lot of time. Another downside is that if they chose
to store it locally it is at a risk of accidental damage or physical damage by
employees or intruders.

u  Whole
system replacements are a way of recovering data where the organisation doesn’t
have a proper method of backing up meaning which means the organisation will
have lost every piece of data saved on their systems. This makes the
organisation will have to start again from the beginning. The organisation will
spend lots of money buying new servers and waste more time trying to restore
all the data again.

u  This
gives the organisation a bad reputation because they haven’t planned any
precautions ahead for losing their data. Organisations must avoid this at all
cost because the organisation can lose many customers because they do not trust
the organisation with their data because of the risk of them losing it

u  In
disaster recovery, there are seven tiers of recovery. These seven are:

u  1.
Tier 0- This means that the organisation has no form of disaster recovery
hardware or software.           

u  2.
Tier 1- This means that data is backed up and transferred to a remote location,
however once a disaster strikes there is no hardware to restore the system to.

u  3.
Tier 2- This means that data is backed up and transferred to a remote location,
once a disaster strikes the data will have transferred over from the remote
location and the organisation will continue working once the restoration is

u  4.
Tier 3- This form of disaster recovery is by the use of tier 2 and an
electronic vault. Electronic vaulting is the moving of data to a secret server
through a secure network.

u  5.Tier
4- This is done by creating a copy at the exact same time as the local disk on
the computer system.

u  6.Tier
5- This tier ensures that transactions happen securely and are sent and
received truthfully. This means that there is no loss in these types of

u  7.Tier
6- This tier ensures that there is absolutely no data loss at all and the
systems and servers are well protected. If there is any loss, the fast systems
will result is very little data loss or corruption

u  8.Tier
7- this means that the systems are slightly automated in finding business
solution that will benefit the organisation. The system will think by itself
for the best possible outcome.

u  There
are policies that are created to protect organisations from losing data or
having their data corrupted. These policies ensure that organisations are safe
from disasters that have a negative impact not only to the organisation but
their customers as well