Virginia they will speedily show themselves as enemies” (Tocqueville).

Virginia Luxuries is a painting that illustrates the massive power
between the whites and black slaves. It demonstrates what white masters
committed against their slaves. The white masters, also known as the slave
owners, had the authority over their slaves. On the left side of the painting,
the white man is kissing the black woman as the other white man on the right
side is shown as aggressive, about to hit the half-naked black woman. They
easily took advantage of black women by abusing them. This picture is a great
example that shows the unequal positions between masters and slaves.

Democracy in America, published by Alexis de Tocqueville, described
three races in the United States that reflect unequal power relationships. The
first race he mentions are the whites which he states that they are “superior
in intelligence, in power and in enjoyment” (Tocqueville). This proposes the
whites are pleased with their race and are in power over the other two races
known as African Americans and Native Americans. Tocqueville noted that the
African Americans lost everything they had, such as their freedom, culture, and
family. This made them feel inferior of themselves. However, the Native
Americans case were unique in relation to Africans since they never surrendered
the whites, yet they were isolated from their land. His opinion of them was
that their lives was easy before the whites came. Both the African Americans
and the Native Americans were being taken advantage and oppressed by the
whites. Both races were being mistreated like animals and but their punishments
were different.

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Tocqueville made predictions
in his publication stating the futures of the three groups of people. One of
his predictions is the civil rights movement along with the civil war. African Americans
were still being enslaved when Tocqueville made this observation in 1830’s. In
the Democracy in America, he dedicates
the issue of the African American race in which he describes the origins of
slavery and their future. “The Negroes may long remain slaves without
complaining; but if they are once raised to the level of freemen, they will
soon revolt at being deprived of almost all their civil rights; and as they
cannot become the equals of the whites, they will speedily show themselves as
enemies” (Tocqueville). He mentioned that once the Africans are freed, they
will demand all the same rights as the whites which will ultimately cause a
conflict. For the Native Americans, he predicted that “the Indian nations of
North America are doomed to perish, and that whenever the Europeans shall be
established on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, that race of men will have
ceased to exist”, in other words, they will disappear since they lacked their
desire to become civilized. 

After analyzing the Democracy in America, Tocqueville had a
fairly accurate idea of his predictions for the future of the races. He knew
that a civil war would occur which has become a constant conflict since we
still see discrimination and unfair treatment until this day. However, Tocqueville
prediction on the Native Americans being wiped out was not accurate. There were
some Indian tribes still in existence but the majority of their tribes, customs
and religions were destroyed. For the white race, they became a proud of
themselves by having an enormous diversity of cultures and living in a land of





‘The Discord”, created by F.
Heppenheimer, illustrates the relationship power between males and females,
fighting over who gets to keep the pair of pants, in other words, fighting for
their rights. The first relationship of power presented in the painting is the
men. The men on the left of the painting side, who are not wearing pants,
prohibit the women to become free by lowering them into society and taking away
their opportunity to be educated. Next, the two women represent other women
that had to fight and who were still fighting for their equal rights. -The
young girl symbolizes the significance of fighting for her rights because she
will become a fighter for her generation. The women on the far right side
encourages her partner to gain the pair of pants since it seems that she is
wearing pants under her dress. This shows how important it means to her to gain
her rights. Lastly, God will become the relationship of power. He tells both
sides that they have the right to keep the pants. The painting clearly shows
how they feel about their fight over the power of one another. The man in the
center states “Rather
die! than let my wife have my pants” (Heppenheimer). The men want to have the
authority over the women and they mention that a man should always be the
ruler. However, the women do not agree with this statement and they say that
“Woman is born to rule and not to obey these contemptible creature called
men!” (Heppenheimer). Women only wanted to gain fair treatment not be

The Declaration of Sentiments reveals the
gender relationships that occurred in the nineteenth century. The Declaration
of Sentiments is a document that outlines women being denied certain rights,
for example, “access to education and employment, gave husbands control over
property and wages of their wives and custody of children, and restricted them
the home” ( Forner, 467). While women were given these restrictions, men were
given more opportunities which was unfair for women. Elizabeth Stanton, who is
known for granting the right to vote, angrily states that all women should be
given rights because they are all created equal. “it is demonstrably the
right and duty of woman, equally with man, to promote every righteous cause”
(Document 3). Men were the ones in power over everything they own including
their wives which made them superior to women. They poured out their
frustration by using the words “He has compelled her” to state that women were
being overpowered by males and the control they possessed. The only task they were
permitted to do is stay home and take care of their families

To this time period,
I can slightly agree with the sentiments because women are still trying to
strive for equality. For example, women who have the same jobs as men, get paid
less. Women fight for being a leading candidate for president. Many men and
women do not vote for a female candidate because of their gender. People still
trust that men only have the power to do everything.



















Abraham Lincoln gave his
viewpoint on the issue of slavery and racial equality in his Peoria speech and
the Fourth Debate with Stephen Douglas. In the Peoria speech, he expresses his
hatred of slavery and how it’s impacting the nation. He felt that the expansion
into the territories was wrong and the institution of slavery was unfair to the
American citizens. He argues that the slaves were being treated as animals and
not humans. He clearly understood how slavery functioned in America. Lincoln’s action
was to “free all the slaves, and send them to Liberia” (Lincoln). Nonetheless,
settling them was extremely difficult since there was no infrastructure to help
them establish themselves to Africa.

During the Fourth Debate
with Stephen Douglas in 1858, Lincoln stated that he did not want to make the
African Americans and whites equal when it comes to social and political
issues. Once Lincoln felt that the institution of slavery was wrong, he noted
that there is a difference between the two races on how the whites have more
authority than the blacks. No American citizen realized that the blacks should
have equal rights as the whites and neither did he, but that should not mean
that the “negro should be denied everything” (Lincoln).  Lincoln believed that every citizen in the
United States should be allowed to be around the whites, without enslaving one
another. However, Lincoln believed that blacks should not be given the right to
vote as well as a government job or participate in politics. He cited his
opposition to equality between the whites and black races by stating “I will
say that I am not, no ever have been in favor of bringing about in any way the
social and political equality of the white and black races” (Lincoln). He viewed
the races as discrete and believed that they could never have the capacity to
become equal in terms of socially and politically.

After analyzing the two
documents, I believe that Lincoln was playing politics. Since he was on the
campaign trail, he began to change his viewpoints. He had agreed that slavery
was an evil institution but he left racial quality out of the question. It
could have been possible for him to change his mind about the issue of slavery,
depending on how he wanted to influence others. However, his number one priority
was to save the Union. “Lincoln was willing to compromise with the South to
preserve the Union” (Forner, 506). He had opposed popular sovereignty since it perpetuates
slavery and expands territories where they do not belong in which it becomes a
danger to the Union.




























The Civil War had officially
ended in 1865, which brought an end to slavery in the southern states. This was
accomplished through Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation. The
proclamation announced that “all persons held as slaves within the rebellious
states are, and henceforward shall be forever free” (Lincoln). Since it only
applied to a few slaves, the United States needed to fully abolish slavery in
all states, leading to the creation of the three Reconstruction amendments
which dealt with the questions of liberty and equality.

In the thirteenth amendment
states the abolishment of slavery. The end of the war signified legal equality
for blacks and whites, thus the constitution was forced to include this
adjustment. Lincoln guided and controlled the amendment since he wanted slavery
to end. The amendment additionally permitted other amendments about rights and
freedom to be passed. The fourteenth amendment gave citizenship to everyone who
was born in the United States, including African Americans. This implied that
all American citizens, as well as former slaves were given equal protection simply
like the white citizens. It also granted Americans more freedom. For the fifteenth
amendment, it stated that the right to vote cannot be denied based on race,
color or previously being a slave. It ensured that all African Americans had
the right to vote.

By the 1870s, the three
reconstruction amendments rise questions and crises of liberty and unequal
power relationships but they have different meanings for the people that lived
in the U.S. The white slave owners that lived in the South believed that
liberty meant having control over their slaves. Once the issue of slavery was
resolved and freedom was gained, conflicts between the whites and blacks were
exacerbated since the slave owners no longer had control over their slaves,
feeling that they lost a sort of liberty. For women, they felt denied liberty
since they were not allowed to vote and did not have the same rights as the
men. This is when Elizabeth Stanton and Susan B. Anthony step in to hold a
convention named Seneca Falls in which they spoke about the issue of women
rights and equality.

For the unequal power
relationships, whites held authority over Native American Indians. When slavery
ended, the whites continued to dominate over the society even though all
African Americans were freed, the whites still felt superior over them. Men
were still in power and had more rights than women. The fifteenth amendment
gave voting rights to freed slaves, but it still did not allow women to vote.
The power the whites had over the Native American Indians was much worse due to
new territories being added to the nation and having the whites continue to
take land and their freedom from them. Therefore, while the reconstruction laws
were to bring equality and freedom, there were still issues that occurred with
race relations, until the Civil Rights Act was created in the 20th