Winter tyres play a crucial role in several parts of the world, mainly in the locations which experience severe weathers which include both snowfall and sleets. The main purpose for winter tyres is to give the car a stronger grip on the road to decrease the amount of accidents which happen on the road. This leads us to the basic physics of winter tyres wich in this case is when these tyres attempt to get a good grip over roads which are covered in both snow, ice and slush, therefore in the driving environment winter tyres are known to be a positive aspect. The economical aspect of winter tyres are ever so slightly more negative as for the economics of individuals and not the country. Knowing this, it is appropriate to state that winter tyres can come at very costly prices for some drivers. The main issue with the cost of these tyres is that they tend to be more valuable for high value cars or larger vehicles in general, although if someone were to own a high value car the economical aspect would not affect there proportion of income in a critically negative way. Different types of weather conditions are in need for different types of tyres which therefore exist both summer and winter, although in the winter tyre department different tyres are needed for different types of snow. This is due to the fact that the friction on the road won’t be very effective in a positive way if the wrong types of tyres are used for ice for example. As tyres with spikes are needed to dig into the ice.Due to this being a topic on vehicles and roads a quick explanation of how it affects road safety is needed, more in particular stopping distances. As we know the main reason for road accidents are because of tailgating and drivers not being able to stop in time before hitting another vehicle. Many of these accidents occur during winter and when the road conditions are poor as they are covered by ice and snow. To the naked eye winter tyres and summer tyres may seem to look like the same thing, although the functionality is substantially different. For winter tyres to work both efficiently and effectively they have to be very flexible and soft as the condition of the road will vary throughout winter, whether the road is covered in snow, ice or slush. The temperature limit for summer tyres or all season tyres is approximately 7 degrees celsius, as they start to lose their grip on the road. Figure 1, a graph representing the effectiveness of certain tyres in various temperatures :Figure 1 represents the use of winter tyres in different temperatures as shown on the x-axis. This proves the statement which has been portrayed previously which is that summer tyres tend to become less effective at 7 degrees celsius. The main summarization of this graph is that summer tyres are not recommended in temperatures below freezing as their performance is only around 20% where as winter tyres have a performance of 80%. The other linear example which is placed on this graph represents the effectiveness of all season tyres. These tyres are used when the temperature doesn’t vary a lot in some areas of the world. Figure 1 Source: “When to Put on Your Winter Tires – RedFlagDeals.com Forums.” RedFlagDeals.com, 12 Nov. 2010, forums.redflagdeals.com/when-put-your-winter-tires-803926/.Another large difference between summer and winter tyres is the material. Winter tyres tend to have a lot more thick rubber so it is easier to gain friction with the road, they also contain a substance called silica which has a similar texture to sand. The function of this material is so it can stick on ice in a very effective way. Moving on to a difference which my seem visible to the naked eye are the hairline cuts on the rubber. Even though they may be as thin as hair each tyre consists of thousands of these threads which are needed to gain traction on the ice and snow. Summer tyres tend to have sizeable gaps which are not very good for the ice and snow, the reason for this being is that snow will get stuck into the tyres causing an unsafe slippery surface. Therefore the friction between the object and surface will be very weak. Similar to several topics the educational background of how certain objects function mainly revolves around the physics and logic of it. In the aspect of physics the main focus is about the laws of friction. Friction is the resistance and grip one object has in contact with one surface while there is motion being taken place. In this case the object are the winter tyres and the surface is the snow covered road. Science is applied to several different topics all over the world and the main focus is to find out how science, in this case physics, can help solve a well known problem or issue. Just like many different solving techniques there always are implications in why science is being used.In this subject science is applied mainly in the physics department as the main subject for winter tyres and summer tyres are the laws of friction. The laws of friction are implied in many different problems and issues, especially in road safety. The three main laws of friction used to imply science in this topic are:The friction is autonomous of the supposed field in which both bodies are at contactThe friction force is comparative to the standard weight between the contacting bodiesThe kinetic energy is mostly autonomous of the velocity of slidingAll these laws listed above are examples in what aspect of physics apply to the problem of road accidents due to the lack of winter tyres being used. Although it is important to note that tyres in general do not totally follow all these laws as the state of the tire has to be taken into account. For example the rubber and thread design of the tyre really separates itself from following these laws of friction.Kinetic energy and friction also has a fairly strong relationship on how winter tyres work. Not only kinetic friction but also static friction. Figure 2:The difference between these two types of friction is that static friction keeps an object at rest. The formula for this is placed on the right. Figure 3:The kinetic friction is when the force of static friction is overcome, which therefore means the force creating the velocity for the object is slowing down. To give this aspect a more visualzed explanation here is a graph created by http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Mechanics/frictire.htmlFigure 4 a graph showing where static friction exceeds kinetic friction: The graph below represents how static friction and kinetic friction is used in terms of car usage. More specific would be the increasing force on the break pedal. The effective frictional force as fraction of vehicle weight is what is represented on the y-axis therefore approx. 0.28 is the point where static friction exceeds kinetic friction. Figure 4 Source: Nave, Robert. “Friction and Automobile Tires.” Hyperphysics. As before stopping distances are also important to take into account especially during winter. This just shows how important physics is in this field. In the terms of stopping distances it is clear to state that increased acceleration and velocity will substantially raise the meters of road needed to halt the vehicle to a full stop. According to the Physics Classroom, increasing your speed from 22 mph to 45 mph can substantially increase your stopping distance by approximately 5-20 meters depending on the vehicle being driven. Although when ice or snow is present on the road logically speaking the stopping distance will increase.To conclude the use of winter tyres and how science affects this aspect of road safety it is clear to say that physics can play a really big role in this aspect as several more people should have a better educational background to the complexity of winter tyres. Therefore a clear explanation of how the science implies to solve a specific problem or issue, has been stated. Because physics is a big aspect in this area it was important to mention what types of laws are needed to be mentioned in this field. These were as stated the three main laws of friction. As explained it is also important to mention the use of stopping distances and how they correlate to both the state of the road and the types of tyres which are being used. Therefore to conclude their main use is by evaluating the fact that there goal is to create strong friction between the tyres and the surface which would be covered by snow and ice.
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