Within the past few years couple of years gun violence and weapon viciousness has expanded by a huge sum in various parts of the world. There are more instances of kids and youthful grown-ups participating in viciousness or getting caught in the crossfire. There has been debates about whether weapon laws are sufficiently strict and what else should be possible to decrease such acts from happening. With more lives being influenced all the time, more concerns emerge in the matter of how individuals can live safe lives when weapons are being utilized as a part of expanding numbers. It is despicable to state that practically consistently you catch wind of a type of firearm viciousness influencing individuals either in the place where you grew up or in another piece of the world. Gun violence has developed into a worldwide public health emergency. A few people feel we should boycott firearms through and through, while others feel this would be incomprehensible. Disposing of weapons may help cure the issue however it may not be sufficient to influence the issue to leave. There are sure parts of the world that has effectively prohibited firearms and comparable weapons. The issue here is individuals can in any case sneak them in. Different parts of the world have certain sorts of firearms that are illicit for natives to currently possess. Disposing of firearms from the condition is only a piece of the issue. You have individuals that are not willing to discuss their issues and form a hasty opinion far too early. Individuals get irate over insignificant details or something that you ought to be able to laugh about. There are also moments when someone is threatened or feels threatened and things escalate. B. What is the historical, philosophical, social, economic, political, scientific, and legal background of your chosen policy issue? Gun violence has issues on various levels. These levels include within the local as well as internationally. It is difficult to state where policies in place help decrease the gun violence rate, if there is a decrease. Some communities around the globe may report a decrease in gun movement and gun violence, but other communities may report an increase in gun movement and gun violence. It would be a perfect world if we could settle our problems without getting angry and turning to the use of guns. People still continue to hope for a better future with fewer guns in it. State gun laws vary. Some states have many more firearms restrictions than others. Some gun owners who visit other states will be granted reciprocity and recognition for any right to carry gun laws they had in their home state. Not all states grant such rights. Right to carry laws are federal and state constitution provisions that recognize a gun owner’s right to use her or his gun for defensive purposes. According to Berkeley Law University of California, gun violence, whether classified as a murder, suicide, or mishap takes the lives of around 30,000 Americans yearly and leaves 70,00 more injured. Americans are nearly as liable to die by a gun as they are to die by being in a car accident. In spite of these insights, Congress has adequately stopped government financing for firearm viciousness for as far back as two decades and weapon control stays careless. Even mass shootings have neglected to start Congressional activity. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (The Brady Act) requires licensed dealers to request a background check prior to transfer of a firearm. The National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), includes four federal databases. The Interstate Identification Index (III) and the NICS Index both contain records that may identify a person as disqualified from possessing firearms on the basis of mental health or developmental disability. The Interstate Identification Index includes mental health information that states have reported to the FBI as part of their criminal history records, such as findings of not guilty by reason of insanity or incompetence to stand trial. Under the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, you cannot have a gun for personal or business use if you were convicted of a crime punishable by being in prison for more than one year, are a fugitive from justice, are addicted to any controlled substance, have been ruled mentally defective by a court, are an illegal alien living in the United States unlawfully, received a dishonorable discharge from the U.S. Armed Forces, renounced your U.S. citizenship, if you are a U.S. citizen, are subject to a court restraining order that involves your ‘intimate partner,’ your partner’s child, or children, or were convicted of domestic violence in any court of a misdemeanor. C. Analyze the health policy surrounding your topic and discuss it conceptually in its formation and where how it has evolved and why. Gun violence kills and injures tens of thousands of people every year, and some doctors and health professionals say that’s enough to consider it a public health issue. There’s just one small hurdle: politics (Schlieder 2017). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) label violence as a public health threat. Physicians argue that by approaching gun violence as a public health issue as opposed to a political issue may help eliminate the number of gun-related deaths and injuries in the United States each year. According to Dr. Georges Benjamin, executive director of the American Public Health Association, “There’s no question that firearms are certainly a tool that cause morbidity and mortality.” He stated that, “We can certainly make firearms safer, we can make people safer with their firearms, and we can make the environment safer for people and firearms in the same space.” According the American Psychological Association (APA), The licensing of handgun purchasers, background check requirements for all gun sales, and close oversight of retail gun sellers can reduce the diversion of guns to criminals. D. Describe and evaluate the interaction among populations and health professionals in terms of the policy outcomes associated with your topic. Physicians argue that Gun violence is a public health issue and should be treated as such. According to the National Physician Alliance, Gun violence is a public health issue that has reached epidemic proportions in this country, affecting our patients, our neighbors, our communities. A petition was started by the Doctors for America Association. They stated that, America’s health care professionals are on the front lines of gun violence. The number of deaths each year due to gun violence constitutes a public health crisis of the highest order. More research is also needed to help doctors screen and educate their patients, but are unable to due to insufficient federal funding. Congress prohibited all agencies under the Department of Health from using federal funds to advocate or promote gun control. A doctor can teach patients about safety and gun storage, or even alert family members or law enforcement if a suicidal person has a gun. But according to Dr. Wintemute and his co-authors, doctors often fail to raise the issue. Some may believe inquiring about firearms is illegal but there is no federal or state law that prohibits doctors from asking medically relevant questions about guns. This issue could be solved if medical schools taught students how to talk to patients about guns. Dr. Wintemute stated very few medical schools now teach students how to talk to patients about guns. E. Research the determinants and measurements of the topic’s health policy as to whether it is working? What are some externalities of the policy (unexpected consequences). How are they being dealt with? There are almost 20,00 laws and regulations in this country which attempt to contain the use of firearms. Due to the increasing number of firearm related deaths, physicians beg for stiffer gun control laws and regulations. Right to Carry Laws are in place, but the laws vary by state. The Right to Carry Laws includes five laws. The Shall Issue is a State law that specifies that under completion of specified requirements, a law-abiding person shall be granted a permit to carry concealed firearms. The Discretionary/Reasonable Issue is a state law that provides the government with some discretion over the issuance of a carry permit, but which generally grants permits to all law-abiding persons. The No Permit Required is a state law that allows individuals to carry concealed firearms for lawful purposes without a permit. The Rights Restricted- Very Limited Issue is a state law that gives the government complete discretion over the issuance of carry permits, and where that discretion is normally used to deny the issuance of permits. The RIGHTS Infringed/Non-Issue is a state law that completely prohibits carrying firearms for personal protection outside the home or place of business. According to the ATF Bureau Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, after the assassinations of President John Kennedy, Attorney General Robert Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the Gun Control Act is passed and imposes stricter licensing and regulation on the firearms industry, establishes new categories of firearms offenses, and prohibits the sale of firearms and ammunition to felons and certain other prohibited persons. It also imposes the first Federal jurisdiction over “destructive devices,” including bombs, mines, grenades and other similar devices. Congress reorganizes ATU into the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Division (ATTD) and delegates to them the enforcement of the Gun Control Act. The Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA), which regulates firearms at the federal level, requires that citizens and legal residents must be at least 18 years of age to purchase shotguns or rifles and ammunition. All other firearms can only be sold to people 21 and older. State or local officials may implement higher age restrictions but are not allowed to lower the federal minimum. There are also laws in place that restrict certain individuals from purchasing hand-guns. Fugitives who are considered a threat to society, patients committed to a mental institution, people with prior felony convictions, and misdemeanors are prohibited from purchasing firearms. F. Evaluate public health policy development and how that focuses on diverse populations and a multi-cultural society in apt scenarios. Guns are classified as lethal weapons, and they are easily available to young people. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the lethality and availability of guns, fueled a youth gun violence epidemic. That epidemic peaked in 1994, when almost 6,000 young people under age 20 died from firearm injuries. Nearly 4,000 children and youth under age 20 were killed with firearms in 1998, and more than 18,000 others were injured. Counteracting Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society features the significance of making socially perfect intercessions to stop viciousness among the most youthful individuals from different populaces. Sections investigate how ethnicity and culture can increment or decline hazard for viciousness among youth relying upon relevant factors, for example, an underprivileged childhood, introduction to injury, and cultural shock status. Even more common than homicide, suicide is another leading cause of death in the United States, and most suicides are completed with a firearm. Males complete the large majority of suicides; depending on the age group, roughly four to six times as many males as females kill themselves with firearms (CDC, 2013). Among youth, suicide ranks high as a cause of death. It is the third leading cause of death of 15–24-year-olds and the sixth leading cause of death for 5–14-year-olds. G. Describe an alternative health delivery system or environment that can be used to better address your policy development in the future. Treat gun violence like a disease. Educate people instead of just giving them a gun and not knowing anything about their background. Individual should be educated on have to live safe and healthy with a gun. The elimination of violence happens along a continuum that starts in early adolescence with projects to enable guardians to bring up solid youth and finishes with endeavors to recognize and intercede with disturbed people who demonstrate brutality. The perception is that no single program is adequate and there are numerous open doors for powerful counteractive action. Dialog of powerful counteractive action from a group viewpoint ought to incorporate recognizable proof of the group being inspected. Inside the bigger group, numerous partners are influenced by weapon viciousness that outcomes in a murder, suicide, or mass shooting. Prevention of gun violence should start during childhood. On a local level programs should be formed to help with the emotional growth. The mental health community must lead the way and advocate for the people in the community to help accomplish the programs needed to help prevent gun violence. All of the programs should act as one and share strategies and ideas. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been an aid to several states by helping develop programs for violence prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed to help states and communities build effective programs, policies and practices around violence prevention. These effective programs should focus on gun safety tips. These tips should include: Follow local, state, and federal gun laws, if you are outside your home state, check applicable local and state laws regarding gun ownership, possession, and use, make sure that you get safety training and practical experience to supplement your lawful gun possession and ownership, never let children play with guns, keep your firearm safely secured and unloaded when not in use, and never use guns while under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol. On a state level, there should be more strict gun laws. If more strict laws were in place, it would decrease the number of guns sold as well as the number of deaths caused by guns. Funds should be put aside to help aid and educate individuals on gun violence and how it’s not good for public health. Stakeholders such as community and public safety officials, schools, neighborhoods, mental health and public health systems, should provide a solution to a piece of the problem. Instead of taking away guns, show people how to live with them better. Thorough background and mental health check need to be done for both buyers and sellers. With any purchase of a firearm the license should be presented and verified through an online state catalog. Gun violence needs to be looked at through a public health’s perspective. It is not about taking guns away but educating and following the necessary policies and procedures to make sure individuals and licensed to carry. The health care system is an important point of contact for families regarding the issue of gun safety. Physicians’ counseling of individuals and families in regards to firearm safety has in some cases proven to be an effective prevention measure. According to the 2012 policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), The AAP supports the education of physicians and other professionals interested in understanding the effects of firearms and how to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with their use. HHS should establish a program to support gun safety training and counseling programs among physicians and other medical professionals. The program should also provide medical and community resources for families exposed to violence
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